Carbon dioxide emission from tourism, as a focus of man-land relationship in tourism industry in the 21st century, is a vital index reflecting its effect on environment change. The article summarizes the contents of carbon dioxide emissions from tourism at different scales such as world, nation, region and unit. These results indicate that: (1) the accounting of the carbon dioxide emissions from tourism began from global and national scales at the end of the last century, then to regional and basic scales. (2) The Carbon dioxide emissions from tourism are mainly from high-developed countries and regions in terms of space, from the minority high-spending tourists in terms of behavior, from high-speed vehicles, high-grade accommodations and high-level tourism activities in terms of tourism element. The carbon dioxide emissions per capita of developing countries and regions are less than one tenth in developed countries and regions. As for the proportion of total emission, tourism transportation accounts for the largest, generally more than 65%, followed by accommodation, and the last is tourism activity. (3) Based on the systemic analysis of these coefficients of accounting carbon dioxide emissions in tourism, the paper indicates that there are progresses in the consistency of coefficients at global scale and diversity of coefficients at national, regional and unit scales, while the coefficients of developed countries and regions are higher than those of developing countries and regions. In addition, some recommendations including coefficients have given to China.
Five provinces located in the five main rice-growing regions in China were selected as study areas, which were Jiangsu, Heilongjiang, Sichuan, Guangdong and Hunan province respectively in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, northern, southwest, southern and central rice districts. Carbon footprints of rice production in these five provinces were calculated through the life cycle assessment method using governmental statistical data, industrial standards and relevant technical data separately. Material and energy consumptions were estimated, key stages of energy consumptions and carbon emissions were identified as well. Moreover, improving measurements had been suggested correspondingly. The results indicated that: the energy consumptions of rice production in these five provinces ranked as following (high to low): Guangdong, Heilongjiang, Hunan, Sichuan and Jiangsu. The carbon footprints of rice production were 2504.20 kg carbon dioxide equation per ton rice (kgCO -eq./t) (Guangdong province), 2326.47 kgCO -eq./t (Hunan province), 1889.97 kgCO -eq./t (Heilongjiang province), 1538.90 kgCO -eq./t (Sichuan province) and 1344.92 kgCO -eq./t (Jiangsu province) respectively. Reducing the quantities of urea and using the intermittent irrigation method could decrease energy consumption as well as carbon footprint.
This paper reviews the development history of ecological risk assessment (EcoRA) and presents a perspective for EcoRA and management. EcoRA, which is aimed at appraising a wide range of undesirable impacts on ecosystems exposed to a possible eco-environmental hazard, has been highly recommended for environmental decision-making. The research progress are reviewed, including research area, content and method are reviewed. Based on this inspection, an integrated framework characterizing problem formulation, risk characterization and risk assessment is depicted to illumine future EcoRA. We conclude that larger-scale assessment studies are still lacking, and assessment theories and methods are being developed. In addition, regional EcoRA needs to make further efforts, especially in theoretical study, uncertainty analysis, integrated use of GIS software and comprehensive risk assessment at regional scale in the future work.
1 Introduction In little more than a decade, the idea that ecosystems are vital assets has spread like fire. Globally, this idea now appears in society＇s thinking about agriculture, water, energy, cities, health, fisheries, forestry, mining, and the infrastructure supporting these and other vast sectors-and it is increasingly evident in the ways communities, corporations, governments and other institutions frame decisions. In particular, there is growing demand for rigorous approaches that integrate the values of natural capital into major development decisions, in order to reverse the degradation of Earth＇s life-support systems and enhance human well-being.
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that has been found to pose various risks to fish health and the safety of aquatic ecosystem. Swimming performance is an integrated index of fitness in fish. However, little research has sought on the effects of PFOS on swimming performances of fish. Experiments were carried out to clarify the impacts of acute exposure to PFOS on behavior, swimming ability and metabolic rate in topmouth gudgeon ( ), to understand the underlying ecotoxicological effects of waterborne PFOS exposure on fish physiology and behavior. Fish were exposed to PFOS (0, 0.5, 2, 8 or 32 mg/L) for 96 h. Afterwards, the routine metabolic rate (RMR), spontaneous swimming behavior (SSB), fast-start swimming performance (FSP) and critical swimming speed ( ) of the topmouth gudgeon were examined. The results show reduced behavioral performance and increased physiological stress with increasing PFOS concentration. Both RMR, SSB and were significantly affected by PFOS exposure ( 0.05). The results indicate that the anaerobic swimming capacity was conserved, but the metabolic level, SSB and aerobic swimming performance in topmouth gudgeon were susceptible to PFOS contamination, and hence might be useful as considerable potential biomarkers of pollution.
Grassland ecosystems are important parts of terrestrial ecosystems and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. In recent years, the grasslands in Northern Tibet have experienced warming, and its precipitation has also increased. Alpine grassland irrigation measures could be a reasonable pathway to redistribute and make full use of the increased precipitation. In this study, we measured the soil respiration in alpine grassland in Northern Tibet under sprinkler head irrigation in the growing season to determine the relationships between soil temperature /water and ecosystem/soil respiration, soil moisture and Q , and soil temperature and Q . The results showed that after 2 years irrigation, alpine grassland aboveground biomass increased significantly, with 2010 higher than 2009. There was significant annual, seasonal and daily variation of soil respiration. Under irrigation, ecosystem respiration and soil respiration increased 75% and 64% respectively; soil water increase can promote the respiration of ecosystem and its components. In our results, the Q value was 2.23–2.81, over the global average. The irrigation can promote ecosystem respiration temperature sensitivity. There was a positive linear correlation between ecosystem respiration and grassland aboveground biomass. The aboveground biomass accounted for 32.8% of ecosystem respiration variation. Soil respiration accounted for more than 70% of ecosystem respiration, indicating that the contribution to carbon emissions of soil respiration is very high. In short, we can project that in grasslands biomass and ecosystem respiration will increase under future precipitation change, which will significantly affect the function of alpine grassland carbon storage.
The relationship between vegetation and soil erosion deserves attention due to its scientific importance and practical applications. A great deal of information is available about the mechanisms and benefits of vegetation in the control of soil erosion, but the effects of soil erosion on vegetation development and succession is poorly documented. Research shows that soil erosion is the most important driving force for the degradation of upland and mountain ecosystems. Soil erosion interferes with the process of plant community development and vegetation succession, commencing with seed formation and impacting throughout the whole growth phase and affecting seed availability, dispersal, germination and establishment, plant community structure and spatial distribution. There have been almost no studies on the effects of soil erosion on seed development and availability, of surface flows on seed movement and redistribution, and their influences on soil seed bank and on vegetation establishment and distribution. However, these effects may be the main cause of low vegetation cover in regions of high soil erosion activity and these issues need to be investigated. Moreover, soil erosion is not only a negative influence on vegetation succession and restoration, but also a driving force of plant adaptation and evolution. Consequently, we need to study the effects of soil erosion on ecological processes and on development and regulation of vegetation succession from the points of view of pedology and vegetation, plant and seed ecology, and to establish an integrated theory and technology for deriving practical solutions to soil erosion problems.
Structure stability analysis is a vital prerequisite for the construction of eco-industrial chain. This study proposed four steps for applying an integrated structure stability index, which was derived to characterize both the diversity and equilibrium of eco-industrial chain, to structure stability analysis, and searching a final eco-industrial chain with the highest structure stability as follows: (1) analyzing links and link points of existing and planned industries through material and energy flow analysis; (2) identifying supplementary industries, which are integrated with pillar industries to enhance structure stability, through forward diffusion effect, backward diffusion effect and sideward diffusion effect analysis of pillar industries; (3) testing industrial structure stability by introducing an integrated structure stability index; (4) coupling of all definitized links and link points. These four steps were applied to a case study of Lianyungang Xuwei New Area, China. The results showed that: (1) there were 9 link points and 17 links of the planned five pillar industries in this area; (2) cement, building materials, chemical fertilizer, fine chemicals and marine chemicals with newly added 23 link points and 44 links should be considered as the supplementary industries; (3) the improvement in structure stability was confirmed by the integrated structure stability index increasing from 0.116 to 0.158 after adding supplementary industries; and (4) the final “steel–petrochemical-equipment manufacturing-logistics-IGCC polygeneration” eco-industrial chain was constructed by coupling 32 link points and 61 links. Therefore, by taking pillar industries as the kernel and by introducing an integrated structure stability index for the verification of stability improvement in industrial structure, these proposed four steps were proved to be an effective process and feasible method for enhancing the stability of eco-industrial system structure.
Because of the absence of natural records with high resolution, the study of environmental changes in arid and semi-arid desert regions, an important component of the global system, lags behind studies in other regions. In this paper, we summarize the literature on the evolution, forms, and profile features of nebkhas (coppice dunes), and discuss the environmental implications of their formation and development. Based on this review, we argue that future research should focus on the quantitative conversion of environmental proxies revealed by nebkha evolution into the corresponding environmental factors: quantitative definition of the stages of nebkha evolution, enhancing the precision of age-dating, strengthening of cross-disciplinary research, and the comparison of nebkha results with other natural records to provide stronger, more reliable conclusions.
The litterbags with different mesh sizes (0.125, 1.000 and 3.000 mm) were placed on the forest floor in October 2010, and collected after each of the three stages in the freeze-thaw season (OF: the onset of freezing stage; DF: the deeply frozen stage; and TS: the thawing stage). Over the whole freeze-thaw period, 14.01% ± 1.26, 20.64% ± 1.61 and 30.89% ± 0.70 of N released from fir litter in the litterbags with 0.125, 1.000 and 3.000 mm, respectively. The contributions of meso- and macro-fauna to N releases were 21.45% ± 3.80 and 33.18% ± 5.39, respectively. Macro-fauna contributed more to N releases than meso-fauna regardless of decomposition stages in the freeze-thaw period. Compared with other stages in the freeze-thaw period, higher contributions of both macro- and meso-fauna were observed at DF stage, and the lower contributions at TS stage. The results suggested that soil fauna have a great contribution to N releases during litter decomposition in the freeze-thaw period, but the contribution was significantly affected by temperature dynamics and the body size of soil fauna.
The effects of saline irrigation water and mannitol on the growth and content of essential oil, photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, proline, Na, macroelements (N–P–K) and microelements (Mg–Zn–Fe–Mn) of lemon balm ( L.) plants were investigated. Saline irrigation water decreased certain growth characters (total leaf area, leaf number, and total fresh and dry mass). The photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and , total carotenoids) and mineral content (N–P–K–Mg–Zn–Fe–Mn) also decreased as saline irrigation water level increased. Saline irrigation water promoted the accumulation of essential oil content and its main components (citronellal, citronellol and geranyl acetate) as well as total soluble sugars, proline and Na contents. The plants treated with saline irrigation water × mannitol resulted in higher plant growth, essential oil, total soluble sugars, proline, macro and micronutrient values than those treated with saline irrigation water alone, photosynthetic pigments and Na demonstrated an opposite trend.
Lipid biomarkers of microorganism and vegetation preserved in penguin droppings record historical changes in the West Antarctic climate and environment. -Alkanes, fatty acids and coprostanols have been determined in sediment core AD6 from penguin droppings in Ardley Island, West Antarctica, using GC or GC/MS/SIM. For -alkanes, the main carbon number was C with single-peak pattern, ΣC /ΣC value was from 0.27 to 0.61, the carbon preference index (CPI) was from 2.97 to 6.12 with significant odd–even predominance (OEP), and these indicate that the vegetation was dominated by mosses and lichens. For fatty acids, the main carbon numbers were C and C with double-peak pattern, ΣC /ΣC value was from 0.35 to 0.77, and the relative abundance ratio of even:odd carbon (CPI ) was from 2.88 to 6.40 with significant OEP. Bacteria invasion index (( C + C )/ C for fatty acids) showed high contribution of bacteria during 1977–1982, 1948–1953 and 1920–1925, indicating enhanced microbial activities. Meanwhile, CPI values decreased and extreme microbes contributed fatty acids with low carbon number to penguin dropping strata. Furthermore, the concentration of cholestanol and ratio of cholestanol/cholesterol in penguin dropping strata changed correspondingly, indicating that the microbial degradation played a major role in the increasing ratio of cholestanol/cholesterol during the sedimentation process. The down-core profiles of -alkanes, fatty acids and coprostanols in penguin dropping strata indicate that extreme microorganism and bacteria play important roles in the relatively simple Antarctic ecological system associated with climate conditions.
The evaluation for ecosystem health is one of the hotspots in the fields of macro-ecology and ecosystem management. Conducting analysis at the regional scale is an important direction for evaluating ecosystem health. Changing the spatial scale from the local to the regional level leads to great differences in targets and methodologies for ecosystem health evaluation and creates a new direction for regional ecosystem health research. Compared with the ecosystem health at the local scale, which refers to a single ecosystem type, the regional ecosystem health focuses on the health conditions and spatial patterns of different ecosystem types. However, there has been little attention paid to this very research up to now. Based on the progress on ecosystem health studies at the regional scale, the study reported in this article aims to discuss the implications of the conception of regional ecosystem health and to put forward a methodology for evaluating the regional ecosystem health. The main results include: (1) there is a significant scaling effect on the ecosystem health analysis, and the regional level is the key scale used to focus on the correlation between spatially neighboring ecosystems in terms of ecosystem health; (2) regional ecosystem health can be defined through 4 aspects, i.e., vigor, organization, resilience, and ecosystem service functions; (3) the basic evaluation objects of the regional ecosystem health is spatial entity, which is the matrix of different ecosystem types; (4) indicator system method is the only approach to evaluate regional ecosystem health; (5) the absolute thresholds of the evaluation indicators for the regional ecosystem health do not exist; the aim of the evaluation is to discuss the temporal dynamic changes and spatial differences of health conditions rather than to ascertain whether a region is healthy or not in view of ecological sustainability; and (6) the integration of evaluation results at multispatial scales, the application of this methodology in the landscape ecology, and the utilization of geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing (RS), and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) technologies are the main directions for further research.
is a North American species and in Poland it is currently invasive in character. It is used to recultivate sand excavations and others, most often in order to make the process of plant and soil succession more advanced. It has been observed that in places were dominated in plantations, the herbaceous vegetation under the trees is poor and sometimes other vascular plants are not appearing at all. Plants usually overgrow the space out of the canopy shade. The positive influence of on a habitat is primarily connected with the chemical composition of plant litter, as well as with the biology of the species. Chemical composition of litter has been researched. The greatest accumulation of elements has been observed in the following parts: green leaves (Ca > K > Mg > P > Si > Na > Fe > Zn > Al > Mn) and leaf litter (Ca > K > Mg > Si > Fe > P > Na > Al > Zn > Mn). Similar regularities are observed in the remaining litter of It must be emphasized that nitrogen occurs in similar quantities in particular samples and it varies from 1.01 to 2.65%. The plant litter reaction (pH) vary from acid to weakly acid. In a short period of time under the canopy of a 10 cm organic and humus horizont (O/A) has developed.