The developmental transition from adolescence to adulthood, a period of time known as emerging adulthood, is marked by great personal growth and interpersonal maturation (Arnett, Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties, Oxford University Press, New York, 2004). Risk-taking behaviors are seen as a significant impediment to positive development during emerging adulthood. However, few researchers have examined how underlying cognitive processes contribute to the development and exacerbation of risk-taking behaviors at this time. In the current study, we examined the multivariate associations between early maladaptive schemas (disconnection and rejection, impaired autonomy, impaired limits, other-directedness, overvigilance, and inhibition) and expected involvement in five indices of risky behaviors for college women (n = 341) and college men (n = 143). Gender-specific patterns emerged in the prediction of different risk-behavior indices. Early maladaptive schemas accounted for 24% of the variance in men’s anticipated engagement in risky sexual behavior (vs. 9% of women’s). Early maladaptive schemas accounted for 20% of the variance in women’s anticipated engagement in both academic/work and illegal/aggressive risky behaviors (vs. 11 and 9% of men’s). In addition, unique schema domains differentially predicted variance in risky sexual, illicit drug use, heavy drinking, and aggressive/illegal risk behavior for each gender. Gender-sensitive and schema-specific prevention efforts for different types of risky behaviors, often present during emerging adulthood, may be warranted.
The study aims to broaden the knowledge of the relationship between personality and generativity. The study tests personality predictors of generativity on the basis of longitudinal data and includes not only personality traits but also self-concept variables while examining five of the seven components of generativity within the McAdams and de St. Aubin model. The sample consists of 150 participants from two longitudinal studies (63 men, 87 women; mean age 54.82). Generativity (concern, belief in the species, commitment, action, and narration measured by different methods) was assessed in the last wave of the study, personality traits (measured by NEO-FFI), and self-concept variables (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Self-Concept Clarity Scale) were assessed in previous two stages of the study (at the age of 50 and 40 of the participants). Regression analysis was used to identify unique relationships between variables. From the longitudinal point of view, extraversion is the main predictive factor of later generativity, and openness to experience also contributes to the prediction of generativity. Self-concept variables are not as strong predictors of generativity as personality traits. The only association between variables of self-concept and generativity was found between self-concept clarity and belief in the species.
Parental ethnic-racial socialization (PERS) represents distinct family cultural practices through which parents communicate important ethnic-racial information to their children. To date, there has been a dearth of quantitative research on how youths value these family practices. Drawing on a sample of ethnically-racially diverse emerging adults (N = 263), this study examines personal valuation of PERS (i.e., the perception of how valuable or important PERS practices have been in one’s life) and its relations to components of subjective well-being (satisfaction with life, positive affect, negative affect). Personal valuation of cultural socialization and promotion of mistrust emerged as significant moderators of the link between respective PERS frequency and negative affect. There was a significant positive association between frequency of cultural socialization and negative affect for those who endorsed relatively low personal valuation of cultural socialization. For individuals who indicated a relatively high level of personal valuation of promotion of mistrust messages, a greater frequency of these messages was associated with more negative affect. Results highlight the practical relevance of exploring youths’ subjective evaluations of these family cultural practices on subjective well-being.
The present study has two objectives: first, to analyze whether the dimensions that make up emotional intelligence (attention, clarity, and repair) give rise to different profiles of university students, and secondly, to determine whether these different profiles are differentially associated with the parenting practices that students report with regard to their fathers and mothers. Results obtained indicate the existence of different profiles of college students. The profile that corresponds to adequate emotional skills presents a lower score in attention, but higher scores in clarity, and especially in mood repair. The other two profiles are inadequate, in the first case because a higher score in emotional attention is accompanied by low scores in mood repair, and in the second case because low scores are presented in all three dimensions. Likewise, we verified the existence of significant differences in the educational practices of parents, the adequate profile is characterized by greater use of parenting dimensions considered to be positive, and at the same time, lower scores on dimensions considered to be negative. One of the dysfunctional profiles is associated with higher scores in positive practices, and is also associated with higher scores in practices considered to produce a negative effect. The second dysfunctional profile is associated with higher scores on the dimensions considered to be negative and lower scores on positive dimensions.
This study proposes interactive digital learning to help elderly individuals acquire knowledge of orchids and polish interpersonal skills. The goal is to investigate the relationship of perceived ease of use, enjoyment, self-efficacy, and social interaction with attitude by adopting the modified Technology Acceptance Model. Purposive sampling is adopted in this study. Two hundred and fifty questionnaires were sent to elderly people in Tainan, for which the response rate was sixty-four percent. First, the research framework proved that perceived ease of use and enjoyment positively influence self-efficacy. Further, we verified that self-efficacy positively influences social interaction and that both self-efficacy and social interaction positively influence attitude. This study makes two contributions to the extant literature on this topic. First, custom-made, educational digital games make older people happier and help them polish their interpersonal skills. Second, the results infer that digital learning is worth development in learning centers for senior citizens.
This study examined the associations of preference for solitude (PS) and social interactions with subjective well-being in three age groups: younger, middle-aged, and older adults. We conducted an Internet questionnaire survey of 1500 people: 500 younger adults (aged 29–31), 500 middle-aged adults (aged 49–51), and 500 older adults (aged 69–71). The questionnaire incorporated scales measuring PS, social interactions, and subjective well-being. The results of a multiple regression analysis, with positive affect as the dependent variable, showed that the interaction term, interacting with friends and PS in older adults, had a significant effect. Thus, interacting with friends was associated with higher positive affect among older adults who reported lower or average PS scores. However, among those with a higher PS scores, the effect of interacting with friends was relatively weak, in comparison to other groups. Moreover, the interaction between spending time alone and PS was significant for all age groups. Particularly, among older adults who frequently spent time alone, those who reported a higher PS tended to have higher positive affect than the other participants. Thus, when older adults preferred solitude, having little social interaction did not appear to inhibit their subjective well-being. However, PS was related to low levels of life satisfaction in all age groups. The results of this study suggest that spending time alone actually enhances positive affect; this partially explains how older adults adapt to their diminishing social networks.
The study was to verify for older adults, the applicability of a recently developed measure of everyday problem solving, a performance-based observed assessment (the Chinese Version of Observed Tasks of Daily Living [OTDL-C]), by comparing with two other measures—a self-report questionnaire and a paper–pencil test. Totally 183 older adults (aged 60–84 years) completed demographic questionnaires and three everyday problem-solving assessments. All assessments measured the same instrumental domains of daily life (medication use, phone use, electric appliance use, and financial management). We observed significant differences in inter-individual variation, and found significant differences in the effects of age and education level on OTDL-C performance compared with self-report and paper–pencil measure performance. Additionally, the inter-individual variance was significantly greater for the OTDL-C and paper–pencil test than for the self-report questionnaire. Age remained a significant predictor of OTDL-C performance after controlling the scores of the self-report and the paper–pencil measures. Education level had more consistent effects on the total score and each domain score of the OTDL-C compared to the other two measures. Overall, our finding indicated that the OTDL-C had greater inter-individual variation, might be a more sensitive tool for examining age-related differences in the ability to solve everyday problem, and could be more applicable to older populations with diverse education levels compared to the self-report and the paper–pencil measures. In circumstances where a high sensitive assessment of everyday problem solving is needed to detect individual differences, the OTDL-C might be a more appropriate choice.
Three studies were conducted to test the general question: Does the successful transition through emerging adulthood exacerbate or inhibit the worry that emerging adults may be feeling regarding money and/or unemployment? Studies 1 (N = 88, average age = 19.06 years) and 2 (N = 146, average age = 19.21 years) sampled emerging adults from a small liberal arts college and asked them to complete questionnaires to assess facets of emerging adulthood (identity exploration, experimentation, negativity, self-focused, other-focused, and feeling in-between), worry, and demographics. Study 1 was correlational and showed that negativity was positively correlated with worry about money and job status. Study 2 used a four-wave longitudinal design and found that early negativity was related to later worry. Finally, Study 3 (N = 181, average age = 22.85) used a correlational design to test the relationships between the emerging adulthood facets and worry with a more heterogeneous emerging adult population (sampled using Mechanical Turk). In all three studies, results consistently found a positive relationship between negativity and worry about unemployment and money. This suggests that as emerging adults struggle with negativity (e.g., instability in their lives) as they transition through emerging adulthood, there is more worry regarding job status and finances.
This study examined the moderating roles of parental warmth, gender, and ethnicity on the association between each parent’s psychological control and emerging adults’ identity development among a sample of college students. A total of 678 Asian-American or European-American undergraduates completed self-reported questionnaires assessing variables of interest. Psychological control by mothers and fathers was associated negatively with identity commitment. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that maternal psychological control was related negatively to identity commitment when parental warmth levels were higher, but not when warmth levels were lower. Additionally, paternal psychological control negatively predicted identity commitment when warmth levels were higher for emerging-adult women only. The findings provide theoretical and practical implications for the field by placing emphasis upon the role of parental warmth and emerging adults’ gender on the relation between parental psychological control and emerging adults’ identity development.
The aim of this study was to examine how adulthood roles (marriage and parenthood) and the perceived timing of the achievement of these roles (early, on-time, late) were related to well-being (depression and life satisfaction) and need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) in young adults. The sample consisted of 433 female and 244 male (N = 685) participants. Results revealed that individuals who perceived themselves as on-time for marriage reported higher levels of well-being and need satisfaction compared with individuals who perceived themselves as early or late. In addition, individuals who perceived themselves as having children on-time reported lower levels of depression and higher levels of need satisfaction compared with individuals who perceived themselves as early. For female participants, employed women have higher relatedness than non-employed women. In addition, married participants have more relatedness and life-satisfaction, and less depression than unmarried participants. The results suggest that fulfilling adulthood roles and the perceived timing of these roles affects well-being and need satisfaction.
The population of older adults is rapidly increasing throughout the world, particularly in Latin American countries. This increase makes it imperative to examine psychosocial perceptions and expectations of aging among these populations, which to date have received little research attention. This study aims to test two models of the associations among psychosocial perceptions, expectations of aging, and religiosity among 544 individuals (52.4% female) whose age ranged from 18 to 59years (M=31.7) living in Bogota, Colombia. The first model examines associations among psychosocial perceptions and psychosocial aging outcomes, while the second examines associations between these constructs and religiosity. The first model indicates that three major psychosocial predictors (social support, positive and negative aging stereotypes) are uniquely associated with three psychosocial aging outcomes (expected aging-related support, aging anxiety, expected health). The second model indicates that higher religiosity is associated with higher perceived current social support and expected aging-related support, greater endorsement of positive aging stereotypes, and lower reported aging anxiety. Results extend the literature on psychosocial perceptions and expectations of aging to Colombia and suggest that religiosity may play an important role in shaping psychosocial expectations and perceptions of aging in Colombia.
There is limited knowledge about age-related differences in health outcomes and treatment utilization among rural stimulant users. The current study examined physical health, mental health, and treatment utilization (hospital, mental health, and substance use care) among 710 stimulant users living in rural areas of the United States. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to examine associations between age and physical health, mental health, and treatment utilization over a 3-year period. Analyses controlled for participants' gender, race, and education. To capture age-related differences, participants were grouped into emerging adults (18-25years old, n=223), early-mid adults (26-44years old; n=384), and older adults (45-61years old; n=103). At baseline, older stimulant users were in significantly poorer health even though they had significantly fewer substance use problems than emerging adult users. GEE models indicated that substance use outcomes improved for all participants over the course of the study but other outcomes remained stable. Older stimulant users continued to have worse physical health and mental health, even though they had fewer substance use problems, than the other age groups. Older adults also used more hospital and mental health services than the other age groups. White participants tended to be at higher risk for negative outcomes than nonwhite participants. We conclude that rural older adults who use stimulants have poor health despite having milder substance use problems and using more health care resources, and need targeted intervention to improve health outcomes.
The main aim of the current study was to identify the links between attachment and psychological well-being (PWB) and analyze the personality characteristics that mediated these relationships. The sample was made up of 1403 adults (mean age 37.2years). The results indicated positive correlations between secure attachment and PWB dimensions, whereas avoidant and anxious attachment were negatively associated with PWB. Significant relationships were found between attachment orientations and different Big Five personality traits, particularly neuroticism. Self-esteem also showed strong links with attachment orientations. Dominance analyses demonstrated that certain personality traitsneuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and self-esteemhad a greater relative importance than attachment orientations for different PWB dimensions. The greatest contribution of attachment was to positive relations with others. The results of mediation analyses showed direct effects of attachment orientations on PWB dimensions, as well as indirect effects through personality characteristics. Self-esteem was an important mediator in all relationships between attachment and PWB. These findings could have significant practical implications in promoting well-being.