Water quality is an important criterion for evaluating the suitability of water for drinking and domestic purpose. The main objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical characterization of groundwater for drinking water consumption. Ten captured sources were selected from three aquifers including the Guelma Mio-Plio-Quaternary alluvial basin; the Senonian Heliopolis Neritic limestone aquifer, and the Eocene limestones of Ras El Agba-Sellaoua aquifer. The analyses concerned the periods of high water in May 2017 and low water in August 2017. Twelve parameters were determined for the water samples: pH, (°C), , Ca , Mg , Na , K , Cl , HCO , SO , NO , (hydrotimetric degree), (total alkalinity titration). The interpretation of the various analytical results allowed the determination of the chemical facies and the classification of the groundwater aquifers as follows: ( ) in the alluvial layer, the gypsiferous marl substratum and the clays of the three terraces (high, medium and low) have given the water a chlorinated calcium chemical facies in the east part of the study area and travertines feeding partly alluvial layer, and have given a bicarbonated calcium water facies in the west, ( ) in the Senonian of Heliopolis limestone and Eocene carbonate formations of Ras El Agba-Sellaoua, the chemical facies are calcium bicarbonate. Water isotopes (δ O and δD) helped to determine the origin of groundwater. Overall, the groundwater in the area is hard and has significant to excessive mineralization. It is progressively degraded in the direction of flow, especially in the Guelma alluvial aquifer.
Compared to conventional energy technologies, hydropower has the lowest carbon emissions per kWh. Therefore, hydropower electricity production can contribute to combat climate change challenges. However, hydropower electricity production may at the same time contribute to environmental impacts and has been characterized as a large water consumer with impacts on aquatic biodiversity. Life Cycle Assessment is not yet able to assess the biodiversity impact of water consumption from hydropower electricity production on a global scale. The first step to assess these biodiversity impacts in Life Cycle Assessment is to quantify the water consumption per kWh energy produced. We calculated catchment-specific net water consumption values for Norway ranging between 0 and 0.012 m /kWh. Further, we developed the first characterization factors for quantifying the aquatic biodiversity impacts of water consumption in a post-glaciated region. We apply our approach to quantify the biodiversity impact per kWh Norwegian hydropower electricity. Our results vary over six orders of magnitude and highlight the importance of a spatial explicit approach. This study contributes to assessing the biodiversity impacts of water consumption globally in Life Cycle Assessment.
Water intake is essential for survival and thus under strong regulation. Here, we describe a simple high throughput system to monitor water intake over time in Drosophila. The design of the assay involves dehydrating fly food and then adding water back separately so flies either eat or drink. Water consumption is then evaluated by weighing the water vessel and comparing this back to an evaporation control. Our system is high throughput, does not require animals to be artificially dehydrated, and is simple both in design and implementation. Initial characterisation of homeostatic water consumption shows high reproducibility between biological replicates in a variety of experimental conditions. Water consumption was dependent on ambient temperature and humidity and was equal between sexes when corrected for mass. By combining this system with the Drosophila genetics tools, we could confirm a role for ppk28 and DopR1 in promoting water consumption, and through functional investigation of RNAseq data from dehydrated animals, we found DopR1 expression in the mushroom body was sufficient to drive consumption and enhance water taste sensitivity. Together, we provide a simple high throughput water consumption assay that can be used to dissect the cellular and molecular machinery regulating water homeostasis in Drosophila.
Environmental impact assessment models are readily available for the assessment of pollution-related impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA). These models have led to an increased focus on water pollution issues resulting in numerous LCA studies. Recently, there have been significant developments in methods assessing freshwater use. These improvements widen the scope for the assessment of wastewater treatment (WWT) technologies, now allowing us to apprehend, for the first time, a combination of operational (energy and chemicals use), qualitative (environmental pollution) and quantitative (water deprivation) issues in wastewater treatment. This enables us to address the following question: Is water consumption during wastewater treatment environmentally significant compared to other impacts? To answer this question, a standard life cycle inventory (LCI) was performed with a focus on consumptive water uses at plant level, where several WWT technologies were operating, in different climatic conditions. The impacts of water consumption were assessed by integrating regionalized characterization factors for water deprivation within an existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method. Results at the midpoint level, show that water deprivation impacts are highly variable in relation to the chosen WWT technology (water volume used) and of WWTP location (local water scarcity). At the endpoint level, water deprivation impacts on ecosystem quality and on the resource damage categories are significant for WWT technologies with great water uses in water-scarce areas. Therefore, our study shows the consideration of water consumption-related impacts is essential and underlines the need for a greater understanding of the water consumption impacts caused by WWT systems. This knowledge will help water managers better mitigate local water deprivation impacts, especially in selecting WWT technologies suitable for arid and semi-arid areas.
This work analyses the presence of forty-eight emerging pollutants, including twenty-five drugs of abuse and metabolites, seventeen cytostatic drugs and six iodinated contrast media, in tap water from the Madrid Region. Analysis of the target compounds in the tap water was performed by means of (on-line or off-line) solid-phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. A preliminary human health risk characterization was undertaken for each individual compound and for different groups of compounds with a common mechanism of action found in tap water. The results of the study showed the presence of eight out of the twenty-five drugs of abuse and metabolites analysed, namely, the cocainics cocaine and benzoylecgonine, the amphetamine-type stimulants ephedrine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methamphetamine, the opioid methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine and, finally caffeine at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 502 ng L . Four out of the six analysed iodinated contrast media, namely, diatrizoate, iohexol, iomeprol and iopromide, were detected in at least one sample, with concentration values varying between 0.4 and 5 ng L . Cytostatic compounds were not detected in any sample. Caffeine was the substance showing the highest concentrations, up to 502 ng L , mainly in the drinking water sampling point located in Madrid city. Among the other drugs of abuse, the most abundant compounds were cocaine and benzoylecgonine, detected at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 86 ng L and from 0.11 to 53 ng L , respectively. Regarding iodinated contrast media, iohexol was the most ubiquitous and abundant compound, with a frequency of detection of 100% and concentrations from 0.5 to 5.0 ng L in basically the same range in all sampling points. Taking into account the results and types of treatment applied, ozonisation plus granular activated carbon filtration appears to be efficient in the removal of cocaine and benzoylecgonine. For the amphetamine-type stimulants, opioids and caffeine, ozonisation plus granular activated carbon filtration and ultrafiltration plus reverse osmosis showed higher removal efficiency than sand filtration. The human health risk characterization performed indicates that the lifetime consumption of the tap waters analysed has associated a negligible human health concern.
A process for hemicelluloses fractionation and purification from wheat straw and bran has been investigated and technical considerations (yields, purity) have been coupled to environmental characterizations (water consumption, carbon dioxide emissions) in order to develop an environment-friendly process. Extraction by twin-screw extrusion gave a yield in arabinoxylans equal to 8.5% (weight of (arabinose + xylose) in the extract after fractionation/dry weight of the destarched bran). The extraction of 86 kg of straw and bran (with a ratio 6.2:1) with 5.8 kg of NaOH in pellet form resulted in the production of a complex extract containing 1.0 kg of arabinoxylan polymer, which required concentration and purification steps. Evaporation (EV) followed by ethanol precipitation (P) and freeze-drying (FD), gave a yield in hemicellulosic powder of 36.5% (dry weight of powder/dry weight of extract after liquid/solid separation) with a total sugar content equal to 48.4% but also used a large amount of ethanol. The other studied purification process was based on a combination of ultrafiltration (UF), anion exchange chromatography (CHR) and spray-drying (SD). It gave a yield in hemicellulosic powders of 24.6% and a total sugar content equal to 28.7%. The technical performances of the second process appear to be less attractive but with a lower energetic and ethanol consumption. Thus secondly the environmental impacts (water consumption and CO emission) of the ultrafiltration step were quantified. Life Cycle Assessment data (Ecoinvent) were used to convert materials used for the infrastructure and energy consumed during functioning into carbon dioxide emissions and water consumptions. Results have shown that environmental impacts due to the operating conditions are higher than those relative to raw material involved in the installation. The study showed that this kind of approach allows the determination of optimum conditions for the ultrafiltration step.
Through the interconnectedness of global business, the local consumption of products and services is intervening in the hydrological cycle throughout the world to an unprecedented extent. In order to address the unsustainable use of global freshwater resources, indicators are needed which make the impacts of production systems and consumption patterns transparent. In this paper, a revised water footprint calculation method, incorporating water stress characterisation factors, is presented and demonstrated for two case study products, Dolmio pasta sauce and Peanut M&M's using primary production data. The method offers a simple, yet meaningful way of making quantitative comparisons between products, production systems and services in terms of their potential to contribute to water scarcity. As such, capacity is created for change through public policy as well as corporate and individual action. This revised method represents an alternative to existing volumetric water footprint calculation methods which combine green and blue water consumption from water scarce and water abundant regions such that they give no clear indication about where the actual potential for harm exists.
A method for assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption was developed. This method considers damages to three areas of protection: human health, ecosystem quality, and resources. The method can be used within most existing life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods. The relative importance of water consumption was analyzed by integrating the method into the Eco-indicator-99 LCIA method. The relative impact of water consumption in LCIA was analyzed with a case study on worldwide cotton production. The importance of regionalized characterization factors for water use was also examined in the case study. In and regions, water consumption may dominate the aggregated life-cycle impacts of cotton-textile production. Therefore, the consideration of water consumption is crucial in life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies that include water-intensive products, such as agricultural goods. A regionalized assessment is necessary, since the impacts of water use vary greatly as a function of location. The presented method is useful for environmental decision-support in the production of water-intensive products as well as for environmentally responsible value-chain management.
Domestic hot water usage (DHW) accounts for a significant share of energy consumption in different types of buildings. Achieving a detailed characterization of domestic hot water usage profiles is of great relevance, as this information will allow for a more reliable assessment of the energy efficiency of systems and buildings. A deeper knowledge of the features of demand profiles will allow for the design of innovative control strategies based on consumption patterns. In this study, the authors review recent works on hot water consumption profiles in different types of buildings and then synthesize available information for the accurate estimation of the energy consumption resulting from DHW use. Water draw-off consumption patterns specified in national and international technical standards are reviewed and influential parameters on water consumption are identified, including climatic conditions, seasonality, building type and socio-economic factors. State-of-the-art modelling tools for generating DHW usage profiles are summarised and new research lines are then proposed, taking into account the caveats in the current characterization and modelling of DHW consumption in buildings.
Nowadays, water and energy consumption is intensifying every year in most of the countries. This perpetual increase will not be supportable in the long run, making urgently to manage these resources on a sustainable way. Domestic consumptions of water and electric energy usually are related and it's important to study that relation, identifying opportunities for use efficient improvement. In fact, without an understanding of water-energy relations, there are water efficiency measures that may lead to unintentional costs in the energy efficiency field. In order to take full advantage of combined effect between water and energy water management methodologies, it is necessary to collect data to ensure that the efforts are directed through the most effective paths. This paper presents a study based in the characterization, measurement and analysis of water and electricity consumption in a single family house (2 months period) in order to find an interdependent relationship between consumptions at the end user level. The study was carried out on about 200 baths, divided in four different scenarios where the influence of two variables was tested: the flow reducer valve and the bath temperature. Data showed that the presence of flow reducer valve decreased electric energy consumption and water consumption, but increased the bath duration. Setting a lower temperature in water-heater, decreased electric consumption, water consumption and bath duration. Analysing the influence of the flow reducer valve and 60 °C temperature simultaneously, it was concluded that it had a significant influence on electric energy consumption and on the baths duration but had no influence on water consumption.