Objectives Our goal was to investigate the effect of treatment with the oral dual endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan on the hemodynamics and exercise capacity of patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Background CTEPH is characterized by vascular obstruction and remodeling, leading to increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Although pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is potentially curative, medical therapy is needed in patients with inoperable disease or persistent/recurrent pulmonary hypertension after PEA. Methods The BENEFiT (Bosentan Effects in iNopErable Forms of chronIc Thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension) study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in CTEPH including patients with either inoperable CTEPH or persistent/recurrent pulmonary hypertension after PEA (>6 months after PEA). Independent coprimary end points were change in PVR as a percentage of baseline and change from baseline in 6-min walk distance after 16 weeks of treatment with bosentan or placebo. Secondary end points included change from baseline in World Health Organization functional class and other hemodynamic parameters. Results One hundred fifty-seven patients were enrolled and randomized: 80 to placebo, 77 to bosentan. A statistically significant treatment effect (TE) of bosentan over placebo on PVR was demonstrated: −24.1% of baseline (95% confidence interval [CI]: −31.5% to −16.0%; p < 0.0001). Total pulmonary resistance (TE: −193 dyn·s·cm−5 ; 95% CI: −283 to −104 dyn·s·cm−5 ; p < 0.0001) and cardiac index (TE: 0.3 l·min−1 ·m−2 ; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.46 l·min−1 ·m−2 ; p = 0.0007) improved. Mean TE on 6-min walk distance was +2.2 m (95% CI: −22.5 to 26.8 m; p = 0.5449). Bosentan treatment was well tolerated. Conclusions This study demonstrated a positive TE of bosentan on hemodynamics in this patient population. No improvement was observed in exercise capacity. Further trials are needed to define the role of medical therapy in patients with CTEPH (Bosentan Effects in Inoperable Forms of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension; NCT00313222 ).
Abstract Pulmonary hypertension is a common hemodynamic complication of heart failure. Interest in left-sided pulmonary hypertension has increased remarkably in recent years because its development and consequences for the right heart are now seen as mainstay abnormalities that begin in the early stages of the disease and bear unfavorable prognostic insights. However, some knowledge gaps limit our ability to influence this complex condition. Accordingly, attention is now focused on: 1) establishing a definitive consensus for a hemodynamic definition, perhaps incorporating exercise and fluid challenge; 2) implementing the limited data available on the pathobiology of lung capillaries and small arteries; 3) developing standard methods for assessing right ventricular function and, hopefully, its coupling to pulmonary circulation; and 4) searching for effective therapies that may benefit lung vessels and the remodeled right ventricle. The authors review the pathophysiology, pathobiology, and emerging clinical perspectives on pulmonary hypertension across the broad spectrum of heart failure stages.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a chronic, progressive, life-threatening disease that requires expert multidisciplinary care. To facilitate this level of care, the Pulmonary Hypertension Association established across the United States a network of pulmonary hypertension care centers (PHCCs) with special expertise in PH, particularly pulmonary arterial hypertension, to raise the overall quality of care and outcomes for patients with this life-threatening disease. Since the inception of PHCCs in September 2014, to date 35 centers have been accredited in the United States. This model of care brings together physicians and specialists from other disciplines to provide care, facilitate basic and clinical research, and educate the next generation of providers. PHCCs also offer additional opportunities for improvements in PH care. The patient registry offered through the PHCCs is an organized system by which data are collected to evaluate the outcomes of patients with PH. This registry helps in detecting variations in outcomes across centers, thus identifying opportunities for improvement. Multiple tactics were undertaken to implement the strategic plan, training, and tools throughout the PHCC network. In addition, strategies to foster collaboration between care center staff and individuals with PH and their families are the cornerstone of the PHCCs. The Pulmonary Vascular Network of the American College of Chest Physicians believes this to be a positive step that will improve the quality of care delivered in the United States to patients with PH.
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is believed to be rare after an episode of acute pulmonary embolism. This study showed that the incidence of this serious complication was nearly 4 percent — substantially higher than previously reported — and was associated with previous pulmonary embolism, large perfusion defects, and an idiopathic presentation. Possible approaches to prevention are discussed. The incidence of this serious complication was nearly 4 percent. Chronic pulmonary hypertension is considered a relatively rare complication of pulmonary embolism but is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. 1 – 3 It is commonly believed that symptoms become manifest only several years after the initial episode of pulmonary embolism. However, the true frequency (estimated at 0.1 percent among patients who survive a pulmonary embolism) and timing are not well established, and there is limited documentation concerning predisposing factors that could be addressed in an effort to prevent this feared complication. It has been hypothesized that in situ thrombosis and pulmonary arteriopathy are common causes of vascular occlusion leading to chronic . . .
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an uncommon disease that is the most serious complication associated with unresolved pulmonary embolism. This disease has several risk factors, but no familial pattern has been described. Few thrombophilic conditions have been reported to increase risk of CTEPH, and none of the hereditary thrombophilias causes this disease. The reason CTEPH develops in some patients after pulmonary embolism remains unknown. We describe a 54-year-old woman and her maternal aunt who both underwent pulmonary thromboendarterectomy for CTEPH. This represents the first description of familial CTEPH.
OSA is a common yet underdiagnosed disorder encountered in everyday practice. The disease is a unique physiologic stressor that contributes to the development or progression of many other disorders, particularly cardiovascular conditions. The pulmonary circulation is specifically affected by the intermittent hypoxic apneas associated with OSA. The general consensus has been that OSA is associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH), but only in a minority of OSA patients and generally of a mild degree. Consequently, there has been no sense of urgency to screen for either condition when evaluating the other. In this review, we explore available evidence describing the interaction between OSA and PH and seek to better understand underlying pathophysiology. We describe certain groups of patients who have a particular preponderance of OSA and PH. Failure to recognize the mutual additive effects of these disorders can lead to suboptimal patient outcomes. Among patients with PH and OSA, CPAP, the mainstay treatment for OSA, may ameliorate pulmonary pressure elevations, but has not been studied adequately. Conversely, among patients with OSA, PH significantly limits functional capacity and potentially shortens survival; yet, there is no routine screening for PH in patients with OSA. We think it is time to study the interaction between OSA and PH more carefully to identify high-risk subgroups. These would be screened for the presence of combined disorders, facilitating earlier institution of therapy and improving outcomes.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive, symptomatic, and ultimately fatal disorder for which substantial advances in treatment have been made during the past decade. Effective management requires timely recognition and accurate diagnosis of the disorder and appropriate selection among therapeutic alternatives. Despite progress in treatment, obstacles remain that impede the achievement of optimal outcomes. The current article provides an overview of the pathobiologic mechanisms of pulmonary arterial hypertension, including genetic substrates and molecular and cellular mechanisms, and describes the clinical manifestations and classification of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The article also reviews established approaches to evaluation and treatment, with emphasis on the appropriate application of calcium channel blockers, prostacyclin analogues, endothelin receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors. In addition, the authors discuss unresolved issues that may complicate patient management, such as the clinical importance of mild or exercise-related pulmonary arterial hypertension, and they identify avenues by which treatment may advance in the future through the use of combination treatment, outcomes assessment, and exploration of alternative pharmacologic strategies.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from mice with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) induce PH in healthy mice, and the exosomes (EXO) fraction of EVs from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can blunt the development of hypoxic PH. We sought to determine whether the EXO fraction of EVs is responsible for modulating pulmonary vascular responses and whether differences in EXO-miR content explains the differential effects of EXOs from MSCs and mice with MCT-PH. Plasma, lung EVs from MCT-PH, and control mice were divided into EXO (exosome), microvesicle (MV) fractions and injected into healthy mice. EVs from MSCs were divided into EXO, MV fractions and injected into MCT-treated mice. PH was assessed by right ventricle-to-left ventricle + septum (RV/LV + S) ratio and pulmonary arterial wall thickness-to-diameter (WT/D) ratio. miR microarray analyses were also performed on all EXO populations. EXOs but not MVs from MCT-injured mice increased RV/LV + S, WT/D ratios in healthy mice. MSC-EXOs prevented any increase in RV/LV + S, WT/D ratios when given at the time of MCT injection and reversed the increase in these ratios when given after MCT administration. EXOs from MCT-injured mice and patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) contained increased levels of miRs-19b,-20a,-20b, and -145, whereas miRs isolated from MSC-EXOs had increased levels of anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative miRs including miRs-34a,-122,-124, and -127. These findings suggest that circulating or MSC-EXOs may modulate pulmonary hypertensive effects based on their miR cargo. The ability of MSC-EXOs to reverse MCT-PH offers a promising potential target for new PAH therapies.