Lymphatic vessels are lined by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), and are critical for health. However, the role of metabolism in lymphatic development has not yet been elucidated. Here we report that in transgenic mouse models, LEC-specific loss of CPT1A, a rate-controlling enzyme in fatty acid beta-oxidation, impairs lymphatic development. LECs use fatty acid beta-oxidation to proliferate and for epigenetic regulation of lymphatic marker expression during LEC differentiation. Mechanistically, the transcription factor PROX1 upregulates CPT1A expression, which increases acetyl coenzyme A production dependent on fatty acid beta-oxidation. Acetyl coenzyme A is used by the histone acetyltransferase p300 to acetylate histones at lymphangiogenic genes. PROX1-p300 interaction facilitates preferential histone acetylation at PROX1-target genes. Through this metabolism-dependent mechanism, PROX1 mediates epigenetic changes that promote lymphangiogenesis. Notably, blockade of CPT1 enzymes inhibits injury-induced lymphangiogenesis, and replenishing acetyl coenzyme A by supplementing acetate rescues this process in vivo.
Tumor growth is an angiogenesis-dependent process that requires sustained new vessel growth. Interleukin-17 (IL-17A) is a key cytokine that modulates tumor progression. However, whether IL-17A affects the metabolism of endothelial cells is unknown. A xenograft model was established by implanting H460 (human lung cancer cell line) cells transfected with IL-17A-expressing or control vector. The effects of IL-17A on sprouting and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were measured. After treatment with IL-17A, the proliferation and migration of HUVECs were examined. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and Seahorse were used to detect the effects of IL-17A on mitochondrial respiration and fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) in HUVECs. Western blotting was used to examine signaling pathways. Herein, we found that IL-17A promoted H460 tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, IL-17A stimulated angiogenesis by enhancing FAO, increasing mitochondrial respiration of endothelial cells. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway was activated to promote FAO. Finally, IL-17A-induced angiogenesis was blocked when FAO was inhibited using etomoxir. In summary, these results indicate that IL-17A stimulates angiogenesis by promoting FAO. Thus, our study might provide a new therapeutic target for angiogenic vascular disorders.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are critical for cancer progression and chemoresistance. How lipid metabolism regulates CSCs and chemoresistance remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that JAK/STAT3 regulates lipid metabolism, which promotes breast CSCs (BCSCs) and cancer chemoresistance. Inhibiting JAK/STAT3 blocks BCSC self-renewal and expression of diverse lipid metabolic genes, including carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B), which encodes the critical enzyme for fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO). Moreover, mammary-adipocyte-derived leptin upregulates STAT3-induced CPT1B expression and FAO activity in BCSCs. Human breast-cancer-derived data suggest that the STAT3-CPT1B-FAO pathway promotes cancer cell stemness and chemoresistance. Blocking FAO and/or leptin re-sensitizes them to chemotherapy and inhibits BCSCs in mouse breast tumors in vivo. We identify a critical pathway for BCSC maintenance and breast cancer chemoresistance.
Protein kinase C (PKC) has critical roles in regulating lipid anabolism and catabolism. PKCζ, a member of atypical PKC family, has been reported to mediate glucose metabolism. However, whether and how PKCζ regulates tumor cells fatty acid β-oxidation are unknown. Here, we report that the phosphorylation of SIRT6 is significantly increased after palmitic acid (PA) treatment in colon cancer cells. PKCζ can physically interact with SIRT6 in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction enhances following PA treatment. Further experiments show that PKCζ is the phosphorylase of SIRT6 and phosphorylates SIRT6 at threonine 294 residue to promote SIRT6 enrichment on chromatin. In the functional study, we find that the expression of ACSL1, CPT1, CACT, and HADHB, the genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation, increases after PA stimulation. We further confirm that PKCζ mediates the binding of SIRT6 specifically to the promoters of fatty acid β-oxidation-related genes and elicits the expression of these genes through SIRT6 phosphorylation. Our findings demonstrate the mechanism of PKCζ as a new phosphorylase of SIRT6 on maintaining tumor fatty acid β-oxidation and define the new role of PKCζ in lipid homeostasis.
Little is known about the metabolism of quiescent endothelial cells (QECs). Nonetheless, when dysfunctional, QECs contribute to multiple diseases. Previously, we demonstrated that proliferating endothelial cells (PECs) use fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO) for de novo dNTP synthesis. We report now that QECs are not hypometabolic, but upregulate FAO >3-fold higher than PECs, not to support biomass or energy production but to sustain the tricarboxylic acid cycle for redox homeostasis through NADPH regeneration. Hence, endothelial loss of FAO-controlling CPT1A in CPT1A(Delta EC) mice promotes EC dysfunction (leukocyte infiltration, barrier disruption) by increasing endothelial oxidative stress, rendering CPT1A(Delta EC) mice more susceptible to LPS and inflammatory bowel disease. Mechanistically, Notch1 orchestrates the use of FAO for redox balance in QECs. Supplementation of acetate (metabolized to acetyl-coenzyme A) restores endothelial quiescence and counters oxidative stress-mediated EC dysfunction in CPT1A(Delta EC) mice, offering therapeutic opportunities. Thus, QECs use FAO for vasculoprotection against oxidative stress-prone exposure.
Fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) disorders have a wide variety of symptoms, not usually evident between episodes of acute decompensations. Cardiac involvement is frequent, and severe ventricular arrhythmias are suspected of causing sudden death. Expanded newborn screening (ENS) for these disorders, hopefully, contribute to prevent potentially acute life-threatening events. In order to characterize acute decompensations observed in FAO-deficient cases identified by ENS, a retrospective analysis was performed, covering a period of 9 years. Demographic data, number/type of acute decompensations, treatment, and follow-up were considered. Eighty-three clinical charts, including 66 medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD), 5 carnitine-uptake deficiency (CUD), 3 carnitine palmitoyltransferase I and II (CPT I/II) deficiency, 5 very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD), and 4 multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) cases were reviewed. Nineteen patients had acute decompensations (1 CPT I, 1 CPT II, 3 MADD, 14 MCADD). Six patients developed symptoms previously to ENS diagnosis. Severe clinical manifestations included multiple organ failure, liver failure, heart failure, and sudden death. Long-chain FAO disorders had the highest number of decompensations per patient. Conclusion: Despite earlier diagnosis by ENS, sudden deaths were not avoided and acute decompensations with severe clinical manifestations still occur as well. What is Known: • Severe ventricular arrhythmias are suspected to cause unexpected death in FAO disorders. • Neonatal screening intends to reduce the incidence of severe metabolic crisis and death. What is New: • Acute severe decompensations occurred in FAO disorders diagnosed through neonatal screening. • Sudden deaths were not avoided by starting treatment precociously.
Inefficient muscle long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) combustion is associated with insulin resistance, but molecular links between mitochondrial fat catabolism and insulin action remain controversial. We hypothesized that plasma acylcarnitine profiling would identify distinct metabolite patterns reflective of muscle fat catabolism when comparing individuals bearing a missense G304A uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 g/a) polymorphism to controls, because UCP3 is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and g/a individuals have reduced whole-body fat oxidation. VIS analyses of 42 carnitine moieties in plasma samples from fasting type 2 diabetics (n = 44) and noncliabetics (n = 12) with or without the UCP3 g/a polymorphism in = 28/genotype: 22 diabetic, 6 nondiabetic/genotype) were conducted. Contrary to our hypothesis, genotype had a negligible impact on plasma metabolite patterns. However, a comparison of nondiabetics vs. type 2 diabetics revealed a striking increase in the concentrations of fatty acylcarnitines reflective of incomplete LCFA beta-oxidation in the latter (i.e. summed C10- to C14-carnitine concentrations were similar to 300% of controls; P = 0.004). Across all volunteers (n = 56), acetylcarnitine rose and propionylcarnitine decreased with increasing hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.544, P < 0.0001; and r = -0.308, P < 0.05, respectively) and with increasing total plasma acylcarnitine concentration. In proof-of-concept studies, we made the novel observation that C12-C14 acylcarnitines significantly stimulated nuclear factor kappa-B activity (up to 200% of controls) in RAW264.7 cells. These results are consistent with the working hypothesis that inefficient tissue LCFA beta-oxidation, due in part to a relatively low tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity, increases tissue accumulation of acetyl-CoA and generates chain-shortened acylcarnitine molecules that activate proinflammatory pathways implicated in insulin resistance. J. Nutr. 139: 1073-1081, 2009.
Bioenergetics homeostasis is important for cells to sustain normal functions and defend against injury. The genetic controls of bioenergetics homeostasis, especially lipid metabolism, remain poorly understood in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the third leading cause of death in the world. Additionally, the biological function of most of the susceptibility genes identified from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in COPD remains unclear. Here, we aimed to address (1) how fatty acid oxidation (FAO), specifically beta-oxidation, a key lipid metabolism pathway that provides energy to cells, contributes to cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD; and (2) whether-and if so, how-FAM13A (family with sequence similarity 13 member A), a well-replicated COPD GWAS gene, modulates the FAO pathway. We demonstrated that CS induced expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), a key mitochondrial enzyme for the FAO pathway, thereby enhancing FAO. Pharmacological inhibition of FAO by etomoxir blunted CS-induced reactive oxygen species accumulation and cell death in lung epithelial cells. FAM13Apromoted FAO, possibly by interacting with and activating sirutin 1, and increasing expression of CPT1A. Furthermore, CS-induced cell death was reduced in lungs from Fam13a(-/-) mice. Our results suggest that FAM13A, the COPD GWAS gene, shapes the cellular metabolic response to CS exposure by promoting the FAO pathway, which may contribute to COPD development.