In recent months, it has directed its operations to Iraqi hydroelectric dams - in particular, the Mosul dam. The Water Convention that was forged under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe in 1992 is one such notable agreement.
Water shortages worldwide are increasingly managed via supply diversification. Yet efforts to optimise diversification have thus far failed to account for important empirical evidence on habit-driven water demand. To resolve this disconnect, an intertemporal optimisation model is developed to generate a supply portfolio that weights alternative sources of water according to the uncertainty of inflows, supply costs and habit formation. The model demonstrates that failure to account for habit-driven consumption leads to sup-optimal water infrastructure investments with too much emphasis on risky, weather-dependent sources, while weather-independent sources with guaranteed supply are underemphasised. Importantly, the optimal share of safe sources depends critically on how sensitive habit formation is to supply shocks. This implies that the benefits of policies targeting water saving behaviours and investments during periods of low supply extend beyond water conservation to more cost-effective supply portfolios. Empirical results demonstrate the importance of accommodating habit-driven demand within optimal diversification strategies.
Reclaimed water programs treat wastewater to remove hazardous compounds, pathogens, and organic matter and provide reclaimed water for non-potable applications. Reusing water may significantly reduce demands on freshwater resources and provide sustainable water management strategies. Though production of reclaimed water is highly regulated, public acceptability has historically hindered the implementation of successful reclaimed water systems. The public generally opposes the use of reclaimed water due to the “yuck factor”, which is the instinctive disgust associated with the idea of recycling sewage and the fear that exposure to reclaimed water is unsafe. This paper reports the results of an extensive survey that was conducted to evaluate the potential acceptability of reclaimed water use. A total of 2800 respondents across the U.S. participated in the survey. Results demonstrate that a small percentage of the population is concerned about water shortages, the majority of the population practices some level of water conservation, and a substantial percentage of the population supports the use of reclaimed water. Climate, demographic variables, and financial incentives were tested for influence on attitudes and behaviors regarding water, including awareness, conservation, and support for water reuse. Sex, age, last monthly water bill, and location (as EPA region) showed no significant effect on the acceptance of water reuse, while ethnicity, education level, metro/non metro, and income showed significant effects. Drought conditions do not have a statistically significant effect on the number of reclaimed water supporters, but increase the number of respondents who are water concerned, the number of respondents who are the most active water conservers, and the number of respondents who limit their use of water for lawn and garden watering. Financial incentives influence the willingness of respondents to participate in water reuse programs, and a decrease in the monthly water bills increased the likelihood that respondents would participate in a reclaimed water program. Support for the use of reclaimed water for various applications ranked positively, on average, except for the application of water reuse for food crop irrigation and use of reclaimed water at respondents’ own residences. Results and conclusions of the survey can provide insight for implementing successful reclaimed water programs.
The potential impact of water shortages on U.S. manufacturing is unknown. While water for manufacturing constitutes an estimated 6% of U.S. water intake, the data (i.e., location, quantity, and purpose of water intake) needed to determine this impact does not exist. This paper will identify manufacturing subsectors at risk of physical water shortages by applying a method for estimating U.S. manufacturing water intake at the necessary spatial and sectoral resolutions. First, the data requirements to quantify a manufacturing facilitys water footprint within the context of the watershed are developed. Second, using international data, water intake at the national, state, and county-levels by each U.S. manufacturing subsector is estimated. Third, manufacturing subsectors that are most vulnerable to risks of physical water shortages are identified. Based on the results, the Paper, Primary Metals, Chemical, Petroleum and Coal Products, and Food subsectors have the largest intake, respectively. However, the Primary Metals, Fabricated Metals, Transportation Equipment, Petroleum and Coal Products, and Plastics and Rubber subsectors are at the greatest risk of physical water shortages based on concentrations of water intake in water-stressed regions. The results can be used to develop strategies to mitigate the risks of water shortages on the U.S. manufacturing sector.
The importance of water quantity for domestic and industrial water supply, agriculture, and the economy more broadly has led to the development of many water quantity assessment methods. In this study, surface flow and soil water in the forested upper reaches of the Yoshino River are compared using a distributed hydrological model with Forest Maintenance Module under two scenarios; before and after forest maintenance. We also examine the impact of forest maintenance on these variables during extreme droughts. Results show that surface flow and soil water increased after forest maintenance. In addition, projections of future water resources were estimated using a hydrological model and the output from a 20 km mesh Global Climate Model (GCM20). River discharge for the near-future (2015–2039) is similar to that of the present (1979–2003). Estimated river discharge for the future (2075–2099) was found to be substantially more extreme than in the current period, with 12 m /s higher peak discharge in August and 7 m /s lower in July compared to the discharges of the present period. Soil water for the future is estimated to be lower than for the present and near future in May. The methods discussed in this study can be applied in other regions and the results help elucidate the impact of forests and climate change on water resources.
Zayandeh-Rud River Basin is one of the most important basins in central Iran, which has been continually challenged by water stress during the past 60 years. Traditionally, a supply-oriented management scheme has been prescribed as a reliable solution to water shortage problems in the basin, resulting in a number of water transfer projects that have more than doubled the natural flow of the river. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the reliability of inter-basin water transfer to meet the growing water demand in Zayandeh-Rud River Basin. A system dynamics model is developed to capture the interrelationships between different sub-systems of the river basin, namely the hydrologic, socioeconomic, and agricultural sub-systems. Results from simulating a range of possible policy options for resolving water shortage problems indicate that water is essentially the development engine of the system. Therefore, supplying more water to the basin without considering the dynamics of the interrelated problems will eventually lead to increased water demand. It is demonstrated that the Zayandeh-Rud River Basin management system has characteristics of the “Fixes that Backfire” system archetype, in which inter-basin water transfer is an inadequate water management policy, causing significant unintended side-effects. A comprehensive solution to the problem includes several policy options that simultaneously control the dynamics of the system, minimizing the risk of unintended consequences. In particular, policy makers should consider minimizing agricultural water demand through changing crop patterns as an effective policy solution for the basin’s water problems.