Abstract To assess the extent of susceptibility to the four most commonly used neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) in the viruses epidemic in the 2015-2016 influenza season in Japan, we measured the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of NAIs for influenza virus isolates and compared them with the results from the 2010-11 to 2014-15 influenza seasons. Viral isolation was done with specimens obtained prior to treatment, and the type and subtype of influenza was determined by RT-PCR using type- and subtype-specific primers. The IC50 was determined by a neuraminidase inhibition assay using a fluorescent substrate. Influenza viruses were isolated: 210 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (67.3 %) , 20 A(H3N2) (6.4 %), and 82 B (26.3 %), and for the Victoria and Yamagata lineages the numbers were 53 (64.6 %) and 28 (34.1 %), respectively, with one unknown. Two A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates showed a high IC50 for oseltamivir (130 and 150 nM). No isolate showed a very high IC50 for A(H3N2) or B. The ratios of geometric mean IC50 of the 2015-2016 influenza season to those of the 2010-2011 to 2014-2015 influenza seasons ranged from 0.62 to 1.78 for A(H1N1) pdm09. The range was 0.73 to 1.35 for A(H3N2) and 0.48 to 1.12 for B. No significant trend of increase or decrease in IC50 was found for any of the four NAIs. Although some isolates showed highly reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir among the A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates, the currently epidemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), and B viruses are susceptible to all four NAIs, with no trend toward decreased sensitivity.
To assess the extent of susceptibility to the four most commonly used neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) in the viruses epidemic in the 2016–17 Japanese influenza season, we measured the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC ) of these NAIs for influenza virus isolates from patients and compared them with the results from the 2010–11 to 2015–16 seasons. Viral isolation was done with specimens obtained prior to treatment, and the type and subtype was determined by RT-PCR using type- and subtype-specific primers. The IC was determined by a neuraminidase inhibition assay using a fluorescent substrate. A total of 276 virus isolates, 6 A (H1N1)pdm09 (2.2%), 249 A (H3N2) (90.2%), and 21 B (7.6%), had the IC measured for the four NAIs. B isolates included 11 (52.4%), 9 (42.9%), and one (4.8%) of the Victoria, Yamagata, and undetermined strains, respectively. No A (H1N1)pdm09 with highly reduced sensitivity for oseltamivir was found in the 2016–17 season. No isolate with highly reduced sensitivity to the four NAIs have been found for A (H3N2) or B from the 2010–11 to 2016–17 seasons. No significant trend of increase or decrease was found in the geometric mean IC s of the four NAIs during the seven studied seasons. These results indicate that the sensitivity to the four commonly used NAIs has been maintained and that any change in the effectiveness of these NAIs would be minute. Common usage of NAIs for patient treatment has not been a driving force in the selection of NAI resistant viruses.
To assess the extent of susceptibility to the four most commonly used neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) of the viruses epidemic in the 2017-18 Japanese influenza season, we measured the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC ) for influenza virus isolates from patients and compared them with the results from the 2010–11 to 2016-17 seasons. Viral isolation was done with specimens obtained prior to treatment, and the type and subtype was determined by RT-PCR using type- and subtype-specific primers. The IC was determined by a neuraminidase inhibition assay using a fluorescent substrate. A total of 237 virus isolates, 50 A(H1N1)pdm09, 92 A(H3N2), and 95 B were measured. No A(H1N1)pdm09 with highly reduced sensitivity for oseltamivir was found in the 2017-18 season. No isolates with highly reduced sensitivity to the four NAIs have been found for A(H3N2) or B from the 2010–11 to 2017-18 seasons. The geometric mean IC s of the four NAIs were quite consistent during the eight studied seasons. These results indicate that the sensitivity to the four commonly used NAIs has been maintained.
The aim was to study the characteristics and case severity of patients hospitalized for influenza with a pandemic strain at a German tertiary care university hospital in 2009/10 and 2010/11 and to compare them to two previous influenza seasons.An observational study of all patients hospitalized for laboratory-confirmed influenza during the last four influenza seasons at Regensburg University Hospital was undertaken.During the last four seasons, a rising number of patients were admitted due to influenza (4 in 2007/8, 16 in 2008/9, 27 in 2009/10, and 55 in 2010/11). Patients seen in the last two seasons were younger (median age 63 years in 2007/8, 52 years in 2008/9, 42 years in 2009/10, and 48 years in 2010/11) (p = 0.046) and presented with a lower rate of major comorbidities (75 % in 2007/8, 62.5 % in 2008/9, 37 % in 2009/10, and 47.3 % in 2010/11). The pandemic and post-pandemic seasons were characterized by a high rate of seriously ill patients with longer hospitalizations (11 days in 2007/8, 7 days in 2008/9, 22 days in 2009/10 and 2010/11) (p = 0.004) and higher rates of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (25 % in 2007/8, 18.8 % in 2008/9, 66.7 % in 2009/10, and 52.7 % in 2010/11) (p = 0.003) and mechanical ventilation (25 % in 2007/8, 6.3 % in 2008/9, 63 % in 2009/10, and 49.1 % in 2010/11) (p < 0.001). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was necessary in 33.3 % of patients in 2009/10 and 25.5 % in 2010/11. We had six fatalities in both pandemic and post-pandemic seasons.Compared to seasonal influenza, we observed even more so in the post-pandemic than the pandemic season a higher number of younger patients, with less serious comorbidities often showing a very severe course.
Biochar is becoming an environmentally friendly material for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and improving food safety. A field trial over four rice seasons was conducted to investigate the use of biochar and low Cd accumulating cultivars on Cd uptake in a heavy metal contaminated soil. Wheat straw derived biochar was applied at 0, 20 and 40 t ha . Two rice cultivars with differing Cd accumulation abilities were selected in each season. The results showed that both biochar and low Cd affinity cultivars significantly reduced rice grain Cd accumulation. Biochar had no significant effect the first season but thereafter consistently reduced rice grain Cd by a maximum of 61, 86 and 57% over the next three seasons. Zn accumulation in the rice grains was not decreased by biochar application, although available soil Zn was sharply reduced (35–91%). Indica conventional rice cultivars had much lower Cd, but higher Zn and lower Cd/Zn ratios in the grain than indica hybrid cultivars. Biochar was more effective for mitigating grain Cd accumulation in low Cd affinity cultivars than in high affinity cultivars. Soil pH was sustainably increased (up to nearly 1 unit) while available Cd significantly decreased by a maximum of 85% after biochar addition. The translocation of Cd from rice roots to shoots was reduced from 20 to 80% by biochar. Low uptake affinity cultivars combined with biochar reduced late rice grain Cd concentration and Cd/Zn ratios by 69–80% and 72–80%, respectively. It indicated that the management of combining biochar and low Cd affinity cultivars should be an efficient way to remediate Cd contaminated rice paddies and reduce health risk associated with consuming rice from these soils.
Highlights • Most vaccinated children receive their influenza vaccination at a doctor's office. • Place of vaccination has changed very little over four influenza seasons. • There is large variability in vaccination setting by age, race/ethnicity, income, and MSA.
Background. We estimated the effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines for the prevention of laboratoryconfirmed, medically attended influenza during 3 seasons with variable antigenic match between vaccine and patient strains. Methods. Patients were enrolled during or after a clinical encounter for acute respiratory illness. Influenza infection was confirmed by culture or reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Case-control analyses were performed that used data from patients who were ill without influenza (hereafter, "test-negative control subjects") and data from asymptomatic control subjects from the population ( hereafter, "traditional control subjects"). Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated as [100×(1–adjusted odds ratio)]. Influenza isolates were antigenically characterized. Results. Influenza was detected in 167 (20%) of 818 patients in 2004–2005, in 51 (14%) of 356 in 2005–2006, and in 102 (11%) of 932 in 2006–2007. Analyses that used data from test-negative control subjects showed that VE was 10% (95% confidence interval [CI], –36% to 40%) in 2004–2005,21% (95% CI, –52% to 59%) in 2005–2006, and 52% (95% CI, 22% to 70%) in 2006-2007. Using data from traditional control subjects, VE for those seasons was estimated to be 5% (95% CI, –52% to 40%), 11% ( 95% CI, –96% to 59%), and 37% ( 95% CI, –10% to 64%), respectively; confidence intervals included 0. The percentage of viruses that were antigenically matched to vaccine strains was 5% ( 3 of 62) in 2004–2005, 5% (2 of 42) in 2005–2006, and 91% (85 of 93) in 2006–2007. Conclusions. Influenza VE varied substantially across 3 seasons and was highest when antigenic match was optimal. VE estimates that used data from test-negative control subjects were consistently higher than those that used data from traditional control subjects.
Spatial and temporal patterns in the onset, offset, and length of the snow season across Northern Hemisphere continents are examined for the period from 1967 to 2008. Full snow seasons (FSS) and core snow seasons (CSS) are defined based on the consistency of snow cover within a location over the course of the cold season. Climatologically, the seasonal onsets of FSS and CSS progress more rapidly across the continents than the slower spring northward offset. Average Northern Hemisphere FSS duration has decreased at a rate of 0.8 week decade (5.3 days decade ) between the winters of 1972/73 and 2007/08, while there is no significant hemispheric change in CSS duration. Changes in the FSS duration are attributed primarily to a progressively earlier offset, which has advanced poleward at a rate of 5.5 days decade . A major change in the trends of FSS offset and duration occurred in the late 1980s. Earlier FSS offsets, ranging from 5 to 25 days, and resultant abbreviated durations are observed in western Europe, central and East Asia, and the mountainous western United States. Where regional changes in CSS were observed, most commonly there were shifts in both onset and offset dates toward earlier dates. Results indicate that it is important to pay close attention to spring snowmelt as an indicator of hemispheric climate variability and change.