The binodal data for the systems containing the POELE10 and KC H O /K C O /K C H O were determined at the = (288.15, 298.15, 308.15) K. The three experiential equations were used to fit the binodal data and they achieved the satisfactory fitting effect. The effect of salt type on the phase-seperation ability of salt was studied. It was found that the phase-seperation ability of the salt with the higher valence anion is stronger than that with lower valence anion, namely, the order of the phase-seperation ability for the investigated salts is potassium citrate > potassium oxalate > potassium gluconate, which is also validated by the effective excluded volume (EEV). The (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the studied systems were determined and correlated by using the Pitzer–Debye–Hückel equation and Chen-NRTL model along with the Flory–Huggins equation, and good agreement was obtained with using these thermodynamic models.
The sodium-potassium pump (Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase) is responsible for establishing Na⁺ and K⁺ concentration gradients across the plasma membrane and therefore plays an essential role in, for instance, generating action potentials. Cardiac glycosides, prescribed for congestive heart failure for more than 2 centuries, are efficient inhibitors of this ATPase. Here we describe a crystal structure of Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase with bound ouabain, a representative cardiac glycoside, at 2.8 Å resolution in a state analogous to E2·2K⁺·Pi. Ouabain is deeply inserted into the transmembrane domain with the lactone ring very close to the bound K⁺, in marked contrast to previous models. Due to antagonism between ouabain and K⁺, the structure represents a low-affinity ouabain-bound state. Yet, most of the mutagenesis data obtained with the high-affinity state are readily explained by the present crystal structure, indicating that the binding site for ouabain is essentially the same. According to a homology model for the high affinity state, it is a closure of the binding cavity that confers a high affinity.
In a logical, stepwise approach to patients presenting with hypokalaemia or hyperkalaemia the clinician must first recognise circumstances in which the dyskalaemia represents a clinical emergency because therapy then takes precedence over diagnosis. If a dyskalaemia has been present for a long time, there is an abnormal renal handling of K . The next step to analyse is the rate of excretion of K and, if necessary, its two components (urine flow rate and K concentration in the cortical collecting duct [CCD]) analysed independently. If the K concentration in the CCD is not in the expected range, its basis should be defined at the ion-channel level in the CCD from clinical information that can be used to deduce the relative rates of reabsorption of Na and Cl in the CCD. This analysis provides the basis for diagnosis and may indicate where non-emergency therapy should then be directed.
Summary In grapevine, climate changes lead to increased berry potassium (K+) contents that result in must with low acidity. Consequently, wines are becoming ‘flat’ to the taste, with poor organoleptic properties and low potential aging, resulting in significant economic loss. Precise investigation into the molecular determinants controlling berry K+ accumulation during its development are only now emerging. Here, we report functional characterization by electrophysiology of a new grapevine Shaker‐type K+ channel, VvK3.1. The analysis of VvK3.1 expression patterns was performed by qPCR and in situ hybridization. We found that VvK3.1 belongs to the AKT2 channel phylogenetic branch and is a weakly rectifying channel, mediating both inward and outward K+ currents. We showed that VvK3.1 is highly expressed in the phloem and in a unique structure located at the two ends of the petiole, identified as a pulvinus. From the onset of fruit ripening, all data support the role of the VvK3.1 channel in the massive K+ fluxes from the phloem cell cytosol to the berry apoplast during berry K+ loading. Moreover, the high amount of VvK3.1 transcripts detected in the pulvinus strongly suggests a role for this Shaker in the swelling and shrinking of motor cells involved in paraheliotropic leaf movements.
Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium–ion batteries, potassium–O2 (or −air) and potassium–sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium–ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.
Potassium‐ion batteries (KIBs) in organic electrolytes hold great promise as an electrochemical energy storage technology owing to the abundance of potassium, close redox potential to lithium, and similar electrochemistry with lithium system. Although carbon materials have been studied as KIB anodes, investigations on KIB cathodes have been scarcely reported. A comprehensive study on potassium Prussian blue K0.220Fe[Fe(CN)6]0.805⋅4.01H2O nanoparticles as a potential cathode material is for the first time reported. The cathode exhibits a high discharge voltage of 3.1–3.4 V, a high reversible capacity of 73.2 mAh g−1, and great cyclability at both low and high rates with a very small capacity decay rate of ≈0.09% per cycle. Electrochemical reaction mechanism analysis identifies the carbon‐coordinated FeIII/FeII couple as redox‐active site and proves structural stability of the cathode during charge/discharge. Furthermore, for the first time, a KIB full‐cell is presented by coupling the nanoparticles with commercial carbon materials. The full‐cell delivers a capacity of 68.5 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1 and retains 93.4% of the capacity after 50 cycles. Considering the low cost and material sustainability as well as the great electrochemical performances, this work may pave the way toward more studies on KIB cathodes and trigger future attention on rechargeable KIBs. Potassium Prussian blue nanoparticles are reported as a potential cathode material for potassium‐ion batteries. The cathode exhibits high reversible capacity, excellent cyclability, and great rate capability. Electrochemical mechanism analysis reveals the active‐redox site and proves the structural stability during charge/discharge. Pairing with commercially available carbon materials, a potassium‐ion battery full cell is demonstrated for the first time.
Potassium (K) absorption and translocation in plants rely upon multiple K transporters for adapting varied K supply and saline conditions. Here, we report the expression patterns and physiological roles of OsHAK1, a member belonging to the KT/KUP/HAK gene family in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The expression of OsHAK1 is up‐regulated by K deficiency or salt stress in various tissues, particularly in the root and shoot apical meristem, the epidermises and steles of root, and vascular bundles of shoot. Both oshak1 knockout mutants in comparison to their respective Dongjin or Manan wild types showed a dramatic reduction in K concentration and stunted root and shoot growth. Knockout of OsHAK1 reduced the K absorption rate of unit root surface area by ∼50–55 and ∼30%, and total K uptake by ∼80 and ∼65% at 0.05–0.1 and 1 mm K supply level, respectively. The root net high‐affinity K uptake of oshak1 mutants was sensitive to salt stress but not to ammonium supply. Overexpression of OsHAK1 in rice increased K uptake and K/Na ratio. The positive relationship between K concentration and shoot biomass in the mutants suggests that OsHAK1 plays an essential role in K‐mediated rice growth and salt tolerance over low and high K concentration ranges. A rice potassium transporter, OsHAK1, is up‐regulated by K deficiency or salt stress in various tissues, particularly in the root and shoot apical meristem. Knockout of OsHAK1 reduced the K absorption rate of unit root surface area by ∼50–55% and ∼30%, and total K uptake by ∼80% and ∼65% at 0.05–0.1 mM and 1 mM K supply level, respectively. The positive relationship between K concentration and shoot biomass in the mutants suggests that OsHAK1 plays an essential role in K‐mediated rice growth over low and high K concentration ranges.
Li–O2 battery is regarded as one of the most promising energy storage systems for future applications. However, its energy efficiency is greatly undermined by the large overpotentials of the discharge (formation of Li2O2) and charge (oxidation of Li2O2) reactions. The parasitic reactions of electrolyte and carbon electrode induced by the high charging potential cause the decay of capacity and limit the battery life. Here, a K–O2 battery is report that uses K+ ions to capture O2 – to form the thermodynamically stable KO2 product. This allows for the battery to operate through the one-electron redox process of O2/O2 –. Our studies confirm the formation and removal of KO2 in the battery cycle test. Furthermore, without the use of catalysts, the battery shows a low discharge/charge potential gap of less than 50 mV at a modest current density, which is the lowest one that has ever been reported in metal–oxygen batteries.
Highly reversible potassium intercalation into graphite in carbonate ester solution at room temperature is achieved by electrochemical reduction at the potential approaching to K /K standard potential which is lower than that of Li /Li. The intercalation results in formation of stage-1 KC compound with delivering 244 mAh g of reversible capacity. The initial irreversible capacity is suppressed by polycarboxylate binder compared to poly(vinyledene fluoride) binder. The lower potential, good cyclability, and excellent rate capability are first demonstrated for energy storage applications. Because of the lowest potential and weakest solvation among Li , Na , K , Mg , and Ca ion carriers, potassium shuttlecock mechanism between two insertion materials as “potassium-ion battery” is advantageous for higher-voltage/-power rechargeable batteries. The excellent rate performance is beneficial for the application to hybrid-type capacitor, “potassium-ion capacitor,” as an alternative to lithium-ion capacitors.
Sodium-potassium ATPase is an ATP-powered ion pump that establishes concentration gradients for Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane in all animal cells by pumping Na(+) from the cytoplasm and K(+) from the extracellular medium. Such gradients are used in many essential processes, notably for generating action potentials. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is a member of the P-type ATPases, which include sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase and gastric H(+), K(+)-ATPase, among others, and is the target of cardiac glycosides. Here we describe a crystal structure of this important ion pump, from shark rectal glands, consisting of alpha- and beta-subunits and a regulatory FXYD protein, all of which are highly homologous to human ones. The ATPase was fixed in a state analogous to E2.2K(+).P(i), in which the ATPase has a high affinity for K(+) and still binds P(i), as in the first crystal structure of pig kidney enzyme at 3.5 A resolution. Clearly visualized now at 2.4 A resolution are coordination of K(+) and associated water molecules in the transmembrane binding sites and a phosphate analogue (MgF(4)(2-)) in the phosphorylation site. The crystal structure shows that the beta-subunit has a critical role in K(+) binding (although its involvement has previously been suggested) and explains, at least partially, why the homologous Ca(2+)-ATPase counter-transports H(+) rather than K(+), despite the coordinating residues being almost identical.