Background A proposed revision of sepsis definitions has abandoned the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), defined organ dysfunction as an increase in total Sequential Organ Function Assessment (SOFA) score of ≥ 2, and conceived “qSOFA” (quick SOFA) as a bedside indicator of organ dysfunction. We aimed to (1) determine the prognostic impact of SIRS, (2) compare the diagnostic accuracy of SIRS and qSOFA for organ dysfunction, and (3) compare standard (Sepsis-2) and revised (Sepsis-3) definitions for organ dysfunction in ED patients with infection. Methods Consecutive ED patients admitted with presumed infection were prospectively enrolled over 3 years. Sufficient observational data were collected to calculate SIRS, qSOFA, SOFA, comorbidity, and mortality. Results We enrolled 8,871 patients, with SIRS present in 4,176 (47.1%). SIRS was associated with increased risk of organ dysfunction (relative risk [RR] 3.5) and mortality in patients without organ dysfunction (OR 3.2). SIRS and qSOFA showed similar discrimination for organ dysfunction (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.72 vs 0.73). qSOFA was specific but poorly sensitive for organ dysfunction (96.1% and 29.7%, respectively). Mortality for patients with organ dysfunction was similar for Sepsis-2 and Sepsis-3 (12.5% and 11.4%, respectively), although 29% of patients with Sepsis-3 organ dysfunction did not meet Sepsis-2 criteria. Increasing numbers of Sepsis-2 organ system dysfunctions were associated with greater mortality. Conclusions SIRS was associated with organ dysfunction and mortality, and abandoning the concept appears premature. A qSOFA score ≥ 2 showed high specificity, but poor sensitivity may limit utility as a bedside screening method. Although mortality for organ dysfunction was comparable between Sepsis-2 and Sepsis-3, more prognostic and clinical information is conveyed using Sepsis-2 regarding number and type of organ dysfunctions. The SOFA score may require recalibration.
An organ-on-a-chip is a microfluidic cell culture device created with microchip manufacturing methods that contains continuously perfused chambers inhabited by living cells arranged to simulate tissue-and organ-level physiology. By recapitulating the multicellular architectures, tissue-tissue interfaces, physicochemical microenvironments and vascular perfusion of the body, these devices produce levels of tissue and organ functionality not possible with conventional 2D or 3D culture systems. They also enable high-resolution, real-time imaging and in vitro analysis of biochemical, genetic and metabolic activities of living cells in a functional tissue and organ context. This technology has great potential to advance the study of tissue development, organ physiology and disease etiology. In the context of drug discovery and development, it should be especially valuable for the study of molecular mechanisms of action, prioritization of lead candidates, toxicity testing and biomarker identification.
Abstract At a national policy level, the United Kingdom is at the forefront of recognizing the role of faith and its impact on organ donation. This is demonstrated by the recommendations of the Organ Donation Taskforce, National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines on organ donation, All-Party Parliamentary Kidney Group, and National Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Taskforce Alliance. Evidence to date shows that further thought is required to ensure the active engagement of faith communities with organ donation in the UK. The “Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020” strategy was launched in July 2013 by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) in collaboration with the Department of Health and Welsh, Scottish, and Northern Irish governments and seeks to increase the number of people, from all sections of the UK's multiethnic and multifaith population, who consent to and authorize organ donation in their life. NHSBT seeks to work in partnership with faith leaders and this culminated in a Faith and Organ Donation Summit. Faith leaders highlight that there is a need for engagement at both national and local levels concerning organ donation as well as diagnosis and definition of death.
Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.
Abstract Successful organ donation in countries adopting informed consent legislation depends on adequate interviewing of potential donors' families. As the number of both referral and effective donors in Brazil increases, health care managers argue whether educational efforts should be directed toward training in-hospital coordinators (IHC)—based on the “Spanish model”—or on the creation of extra-hospital-based professionals (Organ Procurement Organizations [OPOs], the “American model”). Meanwhile, many potential donor families are still approached by intensive care unit (ICU) professionals not trained in donation interviews. The aim of our study was to compare performances in obtaining informed consent from potential donors' families, according to the type of health care professional conducting the interviews: OPO, IHC, or ICU staff. In this retrospective 2-year study performed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we observed an increase in referrals (285 to 411) and consent rates (48.1% to 55.7%). Each year, OPO professionals conducted most family interviews (58.6% and 60.4%, respectively) and obtained better consent rates (63.5% and 64.5%, respectively), when compared to IHC (41.8% and 53.7%, respectively) or untrained ICU professionals (22.1% and 13.4%, respectively). Our results show that adequate professional training is necessary for obtaining family consent for organ donation. Both established international policies for organ procurement and donation, namely the “Spanish model” with its IHCs or the “American model” of extra-hospital OPOs, may equally achieve this task. However, family interviews performed by untrained ICU professionals result in low donation rates and should be discouraged.
Additive manufacturing techniques offer the potential to fabricate organized tissue constructs to repair or replace damaged or diseased human tissues and organs. Using these techniques, spatial variations of cells along multiple axes with high geometric complexity in combination with different biomaterials can be generated. The level of control offered by these computer-controlled technologies to design and fabricate tissues will accelerate our understanding of the governing factors of tissue formation and function. Moreover, it will provide a valuable tool to study the effect of anatomy on graft performance. In this review, we discuss the rationale for engineering tissues and organs by combining computer-aided design with additive manufacturing technologies that encompass the simultaneous deposition of cells and materials. Current strategies are presented, particularly with respect to limitations due to the lack of suitable polymers, and requirements to move the current concepts to practical application.