Lipid peroxidation can be described generally as a process under which oxidants such as free radicals attack lipids containing carbon-carbon double bond(s), especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Over the last four decades, an extensive body of literature regarding lipid peroxidation has shown its important role in cell biology and human health. Since the early 1970s, the total published research articles on the topic of lipid peroxidation was 98 (1970-1974) and has been increasing at almost 135-fold, by up to 13165 in last 4 years (2010-2013). New discoveries about the involvement in cellular physiology and pathology, as well as the control of lipid peroxidation, continue to emerge every day. Given the enormity of this field, this review focuses on biochemical concepts of lipid peroxidation, production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of two main omega-6 fatty acids lipid peroxidation products: malondialdehyde (MDA) and, in particular, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), summarizing not only its physiological and protective function as signaling molecule stimulating gene expression and cell survival, but also its cytotoxic role inhibiting gene expression and promoting cell death. Finally, overviews of in vivo mammalian model systems used to study the lipid peroxidation process, and common pathological processes linked to MDA and 4-HNE are shown.
Oxidative stress and enhanced lipid peroxidation are linked to many chronic inflammatory diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness in Western societies, but its aetiology remains largely unknown. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a common lipid peroxidation product that accumulates in many pathophysiological processes, including AMD. Here we identify complement factor H (CFH) as a major MDA-binding protein that can block both the uptake of MDA-modified proteins by macrophages and MDA-induced proinflammatory effects in vivo in mice. The CFH polymorphism H402, which is strongly associated with AMD, markedly reduces the ability of CFH to bind MDA, indicating a causal link to disease aetiology. Our findings provide important mechanistic insights into innate immune responses to oxidative stress, which may be exploited in the prevention of and therapy for AMD and other chronic inflammatory diseases.
Background Malondialdehyde (MDA) and acetaldehyde (AA) exist following ethanol metabolism and tobacco pyrolysis. As such, lungs of individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are a target for the effects of combined alcohol and cigarette smoke metabolites. MDA and AA form a stable protein adduct, malondialdehyde–acetaldehyde (MAA) adduct, known to be immunogenic, profibrotic, and proinflammatory. MAA adduct is the dominant epitope in anti‐MAA antibody formation. We hypothesized that MAA‐adducted protein forms in lungs of those who both abuse alcohol and smoke cigarettes, and that this would be associated with systemically elevated anti‐MAA antibodies. Methods Four groups were established: AUD subjects who smoked cigarettes (+AUD/+smoke), smokers without AUD (−AUD/+smoke), AUD without smoke (+AUD/−smoke), and non‐AUD/nonsmokers (−AUD/−smoke). Results We observed a significant increase in MAA adducts in lung cells of +AUD/+smoke versus −AUD/−smoke. No significant increase in MAA adducts was observed in −AUD/+smoke or in +AUD/−smoke compared to −AUD/−smoke. Serum from +AUD/+smoke had significantly increased levels of circulating anti‐MAA IgA antibodies. After 1 week of alcohol that MAA‐adducted protein is formed in the lungs of those who smoke cigarettes and abuse alcohol, leading to a subsequent increase in serum IgA antibodies. Conclusions MAA‐adducted proteins could play a role in pneumonia and other diseases of the lung in the setting of AUD and smoking. In our study, we detected MAA‐adducted protein only in the lungs of subjects with alcohol use disorder who also smoked cigarettes. The presence of MAA‐adducted protein in lung and elevated serum IgA should be explored as potential biomarkers for injury caused by the effects of both consuming alcohol and smoking tobacco cigarettes.
Over the past decades, scientists endeavored to comprehend oxidative stress in poultry spermatozoa and its relationship with fertilizing ability, lipid peroxidation (LPO), free-radical scavenging systems, and antioxidant therapy. Although considerable progress has been made, further improvement is needed in understanding how specific reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA, a toxic byproduct of LPO) disrupt organelles in avian spermatozoon. Hence, this study examined functional changes in chicken spermatozoa after incubation with different ROS, and their implications for the fertility. First, semen samples from 14 roosters were individually diluted and aliquoted into five equal parts: control, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide (H O ), hydroxyl radicals, and MDA. After incubation with these molecules, aliquots were analyzed for motility, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, and LPO and DNA damage. Hydrogen peroxide was more detrimental for sperm motility than hydroxyl radicals, whereas the superoxide anion and MDA exhibited no differences compared with controls. In turn, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, LPO and DNA integrity rates were only affected by hydroxyl radicals. Thereafter, semen aliquots were incubated under the same conditions and used for artificial insemination. In accordance to our observations, H O and hydroxyl radicals sharply reduced egg fertility, whereas superoxide anion and MDA only induced slight declines. Thus, chicken sperm function was severely impaired by H O and hydroxyl radicals, but their mechanisms of action seemingly comprise different pathways. Further analysis regarding susceptibility of spermatozoon organelles to specific radicals in other poultry will help us to understand the development of interspecific differences in scavenging systems and to outline more oriented antioxidant approaches.
Background:Malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) is considered to play an essential role in plaque destabilization. We aimed to investigate the association between the tissue characteristics of culprit plaque assessed by integrated backscatter (IB)-intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and the serum MDA-LDL levels in patients with stable coronary artery disease.Methods and Results:The study group consisted of 179 patients undergoing IB-IVUS during elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients were classified into 2 groups based on serum MDA-LDL level: low MDA-LDL group (60% or %fibrosis <30%) was significantly more frequently found in the high MDA-LDL group than in the low MDA-LDL group (14.3% vs. 39.8%, P<0.001). The incidence of MACE (cardiac death, myocardial infarction and/or hospitalization for heart failure) during 3 years was significantly higher in the high MDA-LDL group than in the low MDA-LDL group (6.6% vs. 15.9%, P=0.02).Conclusions:Higher MDA-LDL might be associated with greater lipid and lower fibrous content, contributing to coronary plaque vulnerability. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2173–2182)
The accumulation of toxic compounds generated by the interaction between reactive oxygen species and polyunsaturated fatty acids of membrane lipids can significantly damage plant cells. A plethora of enzymes act on these reactive carbonyls, reducing their toxicity. Based on the chromosomal localization and on their homology with other stress-induced aldo–keto reductases (AKRs) we have selected three rice AKR genes. The transcription level of OsAKR1 was greatly induced by abscisic acid and various stress treatments; the other two AKR genes tested were moderately stress-inducible. The OsAKR1 recombinant protein exhibited a high nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent catalytic activity to reduce toxic aldehydes including glycolysis-derived methylglyoxal (MG) and lipid peroxidation-originated malondialdehyde (MDA). The function of this enzyme in MG detoxification was demonstrated in vivo in E. coli and in transgenic plants overproducing the OsAKR1 protein. Heterologous synthesis of the OsAKR1 enzyme in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in increased tolerance against oxidative stress generated by methylviologen (MV) and improved resistance to high temperature. In these plants lower levels of MDA were detected both following MV and heat treatment due to the activity of the OsAKR1 enzyme. The transgenic tobaccos also exhibited higher AKR activity and accumulated less MG in their leaves than the wild type plants; both in the presence and absence of heat stress. These results support the positive role of OsAKR1 in abiotic stress-related reactive aldehyde detoxification pathways and its use for improvement of stress tolerance in plants.
Of the many biological targets of oxidative stress, lipids are the most involved class of biomolecules. Lipid oxidation gives rise to a number of secondary products. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is the principal and most studied product of polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation. This aldehyde is a highly toxic molecule and should be considered as more than just a marker of lipid peroxidation. Its interaction with DNA and proteins has often been referred to as potentially mutagenic and atherogenic. This review is intended to briefly describe the physiological origin of MDA, to highlight its toxicity, describe and comment on the most recent methods of detection and discuss its occurrence and significance in pathology. In vivo origin as well as reactivity and consequent toxicity of MDA are reviewed. The most recent and improved procedures for the evaluation of MDA in biological fluids are described and discussed. The evidence of the occurrence of increased MDA levels in pathology is described. In the assessment of MDA, the most common methods of detection are insufficiently sensitive and disturbed by interference coming from related species or overestimation derived from stressing analysis conditions. Moreover, no recent nutritional or medical trials report the use of one of the new and more reliable methods, some of which are undoubtedly accessible to virtually all the laboratories provided with a common HPLC or a spectrofluorimeter.
► Cyclooxygenases (COX) convert arachidonic acid to MDA and 15( )-8- -PGF . ► Glutathione (GSH) promotes COX-dependent MDA and 15( )-8- -PGF formation. ► Mechanisms are proposed for the formation of MDA and 15( )-8- -PGF . ► The utility of MDA and 15( )-8- -PGF as oxidative stress biomarkers is challenged. Prostaglandin (PG) H synthases (PGHS) or cyclooxygenases (COX) catalyse the peroxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) to PGG and PGH which are further converted to a series of prostaglandins and thromboxane A . Here, we report that GSH promotes concomitant formation of the current oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA) and 15( )-8- -prostaglandin F from AA via PGHS. This illustrates an uncommon interplay of enzymatic and chemical reactions to produce species that are considered to be exclusively produced by free-radical-catalysed reactions. We propose mechanisms for the PGHS/AA/GSH-dependent formation of MDA, 15( )-8- -prostaglandin F and other F -isoprostanes. These mechanisms are supported by clinical observations.
Oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs) are proinflammatory, and elevated levels in plasma predict cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to develop novel positron emission tomography (PET) probes to noninvasively image OSE-rich lesions. An antigen-binding fragment (Fab) antibody library was constructed from human fetal cord blood. After multiple rounds of screening against malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) epitopes, the Fab LA25 containing minimal nontemplated insertions in the CDR3 region was identified and characterized. In mice, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and plaque specificity studies were performed with Zirconium-89 ( Zr)-labeled LA25. In rabbits, Zr-LA25 was used in combination with an integrated clinical PET/magnetic resonance (MR) system. F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging were used to evaluate vessel wall inflammation and plaque neovascularization, respectively. Extensive ex vivo validation was carried out through a combination of gamma counting, near infrared fluorescence, autoradiography, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. LA25 bound specifically to MAA epitopes in advanced and ruptured human atherosclerotic plaques with accompanying thrombi and in debris from distal protection devices. PET/MR imaging 24 h after injection of Zr-LA25 showed increased uptake in the abdominal aorta of atherosclerotic rabbits compared with nonatherosclerotic control rabbits, confirmed by ex vivo gamma counting and autoradiography. F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging, and near-infrared fluorescence signals were also significantly higher in atherosclerotic rabbit aortas compared with control aortas. Enhanced liver uptake was also noted in atherosclerotic animals, confirmed by the presence of MAA epitopes by immunostaining. Zr-LA25 is a novel PET radiotracer that may allow noninvasive phenotyping of high-risk OSE-rich lesions.
Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) have been used as biomarkers of lipid oxidation for more than thirty years. The validity of these biomarkers has been rightfully criticized for a lack of specificity and problems with post sampling formation. Numerous assays have been published for their analysis giving rise to reference intervals for healthy non‐smoking humans varying more than to orders of magnitude. In spite of these problems, these biomarkers remain among the most commonly reported indices of oxidative damage and the present review focuses on the problems associated with MDA/TBARS analysis, their potential as biomarkers of oxidative stress and the effect of smoking on MDA status.