Several extensions and generalizations of fuzzy sets have been introduced in the literature, for example, Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets, type 2 fuzzy sets, and fuzzy multisets. In this paper, we propose hesitant fuzzy sets. Although from a formal point of view, they can be seen as fuzzy multisets, we will show that their interpretation differs from the two existing approaches for fuzzy multisets. Because of this, together with their definition, we also introduce some basic operations. In addition, we also study their relationship with intuitionistic fuzzy sets. We prove that the envelope of the hesitant fuzzy sets is an intuitionistic fuzzy set. We prove also that the operations we propose are consistent with the ones of intuitionistic fuzzy sets when applied to the envelope of the hesitant fuzzy sets. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
We note that orthopair fuzzy subsets are such that that their membership grades are pairs of values, from the unit interval, one indicating the degree of support for membership in the fuzzy set and the other support against membership. We discuss two examples, Atanassov's classic intuitionistic sets and a second kind of intuitionistic set called Pythagorean. We note that for classic intuitionistic sets the sum of the support for and against is bounded by one, while for the second kind, Pythagorean, the sum of the squares of the support for and against is bounded by one. Here we introduce a general class of these sets called q-rung orthopair fuzzy sets in which the sum of the qth power of the support for and the qth power of the support against is bonded by one. We note that as q increases the space of acceptable orthopairs increases and thus gives the user more freedom in expressing their belief about membership grade. We investigate various set operations as well as aggregation operations involving these types of sets.
In recent decades, several types of sets, such as fuzzy sets, interval-valued fuzzy sets, intuitionistic fuzzy sets, interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets, type 2 fuzzy sets, type n fuzzy sets, and hesitant fuzzy sets, have been introduced and investigated widely. In this paper, we propose dual hesitant fuzzy sets (DHFSs), which encompass fuzzy sets, intuitionistic fuzzy sets, hesitant fuzzy sets, and fuzzy multisets as special cases. Then we investigate the basic operations and properties of DHFSs. We also discuss the relationships among the sets mentioned above, use a notion of nested interval to reflect their common ground, then propose an extension principle of DHFSs. Additionally, we give an example to illustrate the application of DHFSs in group forecasting.
In this paper, we review the definition and basic properties of the different types of fuzzy sets that have appeared up to now in the literature. We also analyze the relationships between them and enumerate some of the applications in which they have been used.
Pythagorean fuzzy sets (PFSs), originally proposed by Yager (Yager, Abbasov. Int J Intell Syst 2013;28:436–452), are a new tool to deal with vagueness considering the membership grades are pairs ( μ , ν ) satisfying the condition μ 2 + ν 2 ≤ 1 . As a generalized set, PFSs have close relationship with intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs). PFSs can be reduced to IFSs satisfying the condition μ + ν ≤ 1 . However, the related operations of PFSs do not take different conditions into consideration. To better understand PFSs, we propose two operations: division and subtraction, and discuss their properties in detail. Then, based on Pythagorean fuzzy aggregation operators, their properties such as boundedness, idempotency, and monotonicity are investigated. Later, we develop a Pythagorean fuzzy superiority and inferiority ranking method to solve uncertainty multiple attribute group decision making problem. Finally, an illustrative example for evaluating the Internet stocks performance is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.
Type-2 fuzzy sets let us model and minimize the effects of uncertainties in rule-base fuzzy logic systems. However, they are difficult to understand for a variety of reasons which we enunciate. In this paper, we strive to overcome the difficulties by: (1) establishing a small set of terms that let us easily communicate about type-2 fuzzy sets and also let us define such sets very precisely, (2) presenting a new representation for type-2 fuzzy sets, and (3) using this new representation to derive formulas for union, intersection and complement of type-2 fuzzy sets without having to use the Extension Principle.
In this paper, we introduce a new form of describing fuzzy sets (FSs) and a new form of fuzzy rule‐based (FRB) systems, namely, empirical fuzzy sets (εFSs) and empirical fuzzy rule‐based (εFRB) systems. Traditionally, the membership functions (MFs), which are the key mathematical representation of FSs, are designed subjectively or extracted from the data by clustering projections or defined subjectively. εFSs, on the contrary, are described by the empirically derived membership functions (εMFs). The new proposal made in this paper is based on the recently introduced Empirical Data Analytics (EDA) computational framework and is closely linked with the density of the data. This allows to keep and improve the link between the objective data and the subjective labels, linguistic terms, and classes definition. Furthermore, εFSs can deal with heterogeneous data combining categorical with continuous and/or discrete data in a natural way. εFRB systems can be extracted from data including data streams and can have dynamically evolving structure. However, they can also be used as a tool to represent expert knowledge. The main difference from the traditional FSs and FRB systems is that the expert does not need to define the MF per variable; instead, possibly multimodal, densities will be extracted automatically from the data and used as εMFs in a vector form for all numerical variables. This is done in a seamless way whereby the human involvement is only required to label the classes and linguistic terms. Moreover, even this intervention is optional. Thus, the proposed new approach to define and design the FSs and FRB systems puts the human “in the driving seat.” Instead of asking experts to define features and MFs correspondingly, to parameterize them, to define algorithm parameters, to choose types of MFs, or to label each individual item, it only requires (optionally) to select prototypes from data and (again, optionally) to label them. Numerical examples as well as a naïve empirical fuzzy (εF) classifier are presented with an illustrative purpose. Due to the very fundamental nature of the proposal, it can have a very wide area of applications resulting in a series of new algorithms such as εF classifiers, εF predictors, εF controllers, and so on. This is left for the future research.
Hesitant fuzzy sets (HFSs) are a useful tool to manage situations in which the decision makers (DMs) hesitate about several possible values for the membership to assess a variable, alternative, etc. However, HFSs have the information loss problem and cannot identify different DMs, which interferes with the application of HFSs in decision making. To overcome these limitations, we develop the extended hesitant fuzzy sets (EHFSs) in this paper. As an extension of HFSs, EHFSs have close relationships with existing fuzzy sets including intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs), fuzzy multisets (FMSs), type-2 fuzzy sets (T2FSs), dual hesitant fuzzy sets (DHFSs), and especially HFSs. We propose a concept of extended hesitant fuzzy elements (EHFEs), then study the basic operations and the desirable properties of EHFEs in detail. Some extended hesitant distance measures are developed to illustrate their advantages comparing with the existing hesitant distance measures. To extend EHFSs to decision making, we combine the proposed distance measures with the Dempster-Shafer belief structure. First published online: 15 Jun 2015
In this paper, we propose a variety of distance measures for hesitant fuzzy sets, based on which the corresponding similarity measures can be obtained. We investigate the connections of the aforementioned distance measures and further develop a number of hesitant ordered weighted distance measures and hesitant ordered weighted similarity measures. They can alleviate the influence of unduly large (or small) deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. Several numerical examples are provided to illustrate these distance and similarity measures. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In this state-of-the-art paper, important advances that have been made during the past five years for both general and interval type-2 fuzzy sets and systems are described. Interest in type-2 subjects is worldwide and touches on a broad range of applications and many interesting theoretical topics. The main focus of this paper is on the theoretical topics, with descriptions of what they are, what has been accomplished, and what remains to be done. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.