Individual differences researchers very commonly report Pearson correlations between their variables of interest. Cohen (1988) provided guidelines for the purposes of interpreting the magnitude of a correlation, as well as estimating power. Specifically, = 0.10, = 0.30, and = 0.50 were recommended to be considered small, medium, and large in magnitude, respectively. However, Cohen's effect size guidelines were based principally upon an essentially qualitative impression, rather than a systematic, quantitative analysis of data. Consequently, the purpose of this investigation was to develop a large sample of previously published meta-analytically derived correlations which would allow for an evaluation of Cohen's guidelines from an empirical perspective. Based on 708 meta-analytically derived correlations, the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles corresponded to correlations of 0.11, 0.19, and 0.29, respectively. Based on the results, it is suggested that Cohen's correlation guidelines are too exigent, as < 3% of correlations in the literature were found to be as large as = 0.50. Consequently, in the absence of any other information, individual differences researchers are recommended to consider correlations of 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 as relatively small, typical, and relatively large, in the context of a power analysis, as well as the interpretation of statistical results from a normative perspective.
Organometal halide perovskites have recently emerged displaying a huge potential for not only photovoltaic, but also light emitting applications. Exploiting the optical properties of specifically tailored perovskite nanocrystals could greatly enhance the efficiency and functionality of applications based on this material. In this study, we investigate the quantum size effect in colloidal organometal halide perovskite nanoplatelets. By tuning the ratio of the organic cations used, we can control the thickness and consequently the photoluminescence emission of the platelets. Quantum mechanical calculations match well with the experimental values. We find that not only do the properties of the perovsidte, but also those of the organic ligands play an important role. Stacking of nanoplatelets leads to the formation of minibands, further shifting the bandgap energies. In addition, we find a large exciton binding energy of up to several hundreds of meV for nanoplatelets thinner than three unit cells, partially counteracting the blueshift induced by quantum confinement. Understanding of the quantum size effects in perovsldte nanoplatelets and the ability to tune them provide an additional method with which to manipulate the optical properties of organometal halide perovsldtes.
Deformation twinning in crystals is a highly coherent inelastic shearing process that controls the mechanical behaviour of many materials, but its origin and spatio-temporal features are shrouded in mystery. Using micro-compression and in situ nano-compression experiments, here we find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium's ideal strength. We develop a 'stimulated slip' model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning. The sample size in transition is relatively large and easily accessible in experiments, making our understanding of size dependence relevant for applications.
It was shown experimentally that changing the indenter load and the indentation size does not change the total deformation during indentation ( ≈ const.), and that fracture does not influence the scale effect. For this reason the physical nature of the scale effect is revealed better by nanoindentation and under more “clean” conditions than in uniaxial deformation tests. The indentation size effect (ISE) is revealed as the change of mechanical properties determined by indentation. It was shown that reduction of the indent size leads to both increasing hardness and decreasing plasticity, determined by indentation. The phenomenological approach to the ISE (in which the power dependence of the indenter load on the indenter displacement of is used) made it possible to describe the dependence of nanohardness ( ) and ( ) by simple equations. Nanohardness was determined for 21 different crystals, and parameters that enabled the size dependence of for these crystals to be calculated were determined. It is proposed to determine nanohardness at = const. instead of = const. and to recalculate using our equations for fixed values of = 1000 nm for metals and = 100 nm for hard materials. The use of the developed technique makes it possible to compare results of nanohardness tests from different sources for different indenter loads.
In the field of nanofluidics, it has been an ultimate but seemingly distant goal to controllably fabricate capillaries with dimensions approaching the size of small ions and water molecules. We report ion transport through ultimately narrow slits that are fabricated by effectively removing a single atomic plane from a bulk crystal. The atomically flat angstrom-scale slits exhibit little surface charge, allowing elucidation of the role of steric effects. We find that ions with hydrated diameters larger than the slit size can still permeate through, albeit with reduced mobility. The confinement also leads to a notable asymmetry between anions and cations of the same diameter. Our results provide a platform for studying the effects of angstrom-scale confinement, which is important for the development of nanofluidics, molecular separation, and other nanoscale technologies.
In physical metallurgy, solid solubility of alloys is known to play a vital role in determining their physical/mechanical properties. Hume–Rothery rules show the great effect of size difference between solvent and solute atoms on the solid solubility of binary alloys. However, modern multicomponent systems, such as high-entropy alloys, defy the classic atomic size effect due to the absence of solvent and/or solute atoms. Here, we propose an effective atomic size parameter by considering atomic packing misfitting in multicomponent systems.
The nanosized Li4+xTi5O12 spinel is investigated by electrochemical (dis)charging and neutron diffraction. The near-surface environment of the nanosized particles allows higher Li ion occupancies, leading to a larger storage capacity. However, too high surface lithium storage leads to irreversible capacity loss, most likely due to surface reconstruction or mechanical failure. A mechanism where the large near-surface capacity ultimately leads to surface reconstruction rationalizes the existence of an optimal particle size. Recent literature attributes the curved voltage profiles, leading to a reduced length of the voltage plateau, of nanosized electrode particles to strain and interface energy from the coexisting end members. However, the unique zero-strain property of the Li4+xTi5O12 spinel implies a different origin of the curved voltage profiles observed for its nanosized crystallites. It is proposed to be the consequence of different structural environments in the near-surface region, depending on the distance from the surface and surface orientation, leading to a distribution of redox potentials in the near-surface area. This phenomenon may be expected to play a significant role in all nanoinsertion materials displaying the typical curved voltage curves with reduced length of the constant-voltage plateau.