This paper documents the earth construction techniques used in Ota in order to preserve the earth construction heritage of the Ota people while checking the suitability of the earth materials used, using soil classification tests. Interviews of earth constructors in six villages in Ota were conducted to determine their material selection criteria, material processing and construction techniques. Colour and texture of soil samples were determined and in-situ tests such as biscuit, cigar, hand-wash and adhesion tests were performed on soil samples used for earth building construction at three of the villages. Natural moisture content, sieve and hydrometer analyses, and Atterberg limits test were performed in the laboratory, on soil samples taken from these three locations. It was revealed from the interview sessions that cob construction technique is widely used and that earth building construction is becoming less-appealing to the youths in these locations. The soil samples at the three locations were classified as clayey sand and were ascertained to be suitable for earth building construction. Earth constructors in Ota perceive that earth buildings are more economical and energy-conserving. Earth buildings are a potential solution to the global housing crisis experienced, especially in developing countries.
Sustainable decision-making in civil engineering, construction and building technology can be supported by fundamental scientific achievements and multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) theories. The current paper aims at overviewing the state of the art in terms of published papers related to theoretical methods that are applied to support sustainable evaluation and selection processes in civil engineering. The review is limited solely to papers referred to in the Clarivate Analytic Web of Science core collection database. As the focus is on multiple-criteria decision-making, it aims at reviewing how the papers on MCDM developments and applications have been distributed by period of publishing, by author countries and institutions, and by journals. Detailed analysis of 2015-2017 journal articles from two Web of Science categories (engineering civil and construction building technology) is presented. The articles are grouped by research domains, problems analyzed and the decision-making approaches used. The findings of the current review paper show that MCDM applications have been constantly growing and particularly increased in the last three years, confirming the great potential and prospects of applying MCDM methods for sustainable decision-making in civil engineering, construction and building technology.
For last 15 years, the market size of high-rise building construction has rapidly increased by four times. Many global contractors are investing in the development of high-rise building construction technology, which needs more advanced construction technology than ordinary building construction to secure competiveness in the market. It is significant for contractors to prospect the promising field of technology for strategic investment. Therefore, this study analyzed patents to forecast promising technology fields in future high-rise building construction. 2875 patents related to high-rise building construction that were applied for in the US, Europe, Korea, China and Japan during 1995–2013 were analyzed for market prospect and promising technology. As a result of the market analysis, Korea and China are in the developing phase of the technology market; and in particular, the Chinese market is showing the most drastic growth. On the other hand, the analysis of technology suggests the following technologies offer promising technology: 1) monitoring technology to enhance the efficiency of high-rise building construction; 2) information modeling technology and energy reduction technology in the construction phase based on information modeling technology; and 3) safety management technology based on information modeling technology. This study is intended to provide directions for high-rise building construction technology investment, and objective data for decision making for future global contractors.
There is a need to assist the inhabitants of informal settlements especially in developing countries to improve their living conditions and hence their quality of life. However, it is important to note that the bulk of housing for the urban poor will always be built by the poor themselves. In which case, there is a need for building technologies that are responsive to such communities and their environment in order to empower them to make their own contribution to the process of improving their living conditions. There exists building technologies considered as such. This paper analyses some of these technologies against a conceptual framework. The framework defines and analyses building technologies in terms of socio-economic, environmental and technical criteria defined in the regional context. It is based on the concept of sustainable development. Building technologies are analysed as an objective function problem using a multi-criteria optimisation technique. The results show that most of the technologies are not responsive in the regional context. That is, the technologies cannot provide a good quality dwelling unit and at the same time address the socio-economic needs of the urban poor while minimising the negative impact on the environment.
Buildings account for a significant portion of energy consumption and carbon emissions around the world and increasingly scholars and practitioners are re-thinking strategies that mitigate use. This paper reports an empirical study aimed at identifying the relationship between building technology and resident behavior and the joint effects on energy consumption in residential buildings. Unlike previous work that isolated effects of technology or behavior on energy consumption, this study investigates their interactions. The researchers collected technical and behavioral data from more than 300 residential units and performed data analysis using energy simulation and multivariate regression techniques. Results identify the interaction effects between building technology and resident behavior and provide quantifiable evidence supporting the hypothesis that “building technology and resident behaviors interact with each other and ultimately affect home energy consumption.” Findings indicate four important resident behaviors that directly correlate to energy consumption and two that indirectly correlate to energy consumption. The research also indicates that only 42% of technological advances directly contribute to home energy efficiency, suggesting that the achievable impact on energy savings depends on both technical advances and behavioral plasticity.
Yan et al. investigate the mechanical properties, the mesodamage properties, and the microproperties of cement-emulsified asphalt in plastic concrete by computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. Besides those, there are several interesting topics in the issue of cement materials. Tongyuan et al. present a series of experiments on restriction-induced cracking behaviours as well as free shrinkage, water loss, and mechanical properties of dry-mixed plastering mortar (DMPM), in order to evaluate the cracking resistance of DMPM and analyse the influence of environmental conditions on the cracking tendency of DMPM. [...]Wang et al. present a finite element analysis and lightweight optimization design of the main frame structure of a large electrostatic precipitator, and Çıra et al. analyse the effects of material properties of marble on surface roughness and glossiness (surface quality).