Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) is one of the most widely used transparent semiconductors due to its electrical conductivity and optical transparency. Thin layers of ITO are prepared in industrial scale by a range of physical deposition techniques such as magnetron sputtering, dip-coating method etc. The ITO thin films with tailored thickness from 220 nm to 550 nm were prepared by dip-coating method on planar substrates. The resistivity of prepared films was tailored from 2.5 Ω*m to 0.02 Ω*m by the annealing temperature. The deposition technology was adapted to the fiber optic substrates. ITO layers were successfully deposed on the decladded polymer coated silica fibers (PCS) and inside the capillary fibers. The resistivity of prepared optical fiber was below 0.15 MΩ*m-1. Prepared films appeared values of the refractive index around 1.458. The strong dependence of the resistivity of prepared ITO films on the humidity was found. The reason could be found in the relatively high porosity of prepared ITO film which supports the adsorption of the water to the grain boundaries of ITO nanocrystals.
The unusual properties of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), such as permanent nanoscale porosity, high surface area, uniformly structured cavities, and the availability of in-pore functionality and outer-surface modification, are advantageous for diverse applications. However, most existing methods for the synthesis of nanosized MOFs require an activation procedure or auxiliary stabilizing agents. Here we report a 1-min, room-temperature approach for the synthesis of nanosized isoreticular MOFs (IRMOFs) to fabricate IRMOF coated capillary columns for the high-resolution gas chromatographic separation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). The developed method allows the synthesis of well-shaped nanosized IRMOFs within 1 min at room temperature without the need for any activation procedure or auxiliary stabilizing agents. The IRMOF coated capillary columns offer good separation efficiency that is generally comparable to that of a commercial HP-5MS column for POPs. The IRMOF-1 and IRMOF-3 coated capillary columns gave the theoretical plate values of 2293 and 2063 plates m–1 for naphthalene, respectively, which are slightly smaller than those with a HP-5MS column (2845 plates m–1). The IRMOF-1 coated capillary column offered good resolution for the separation of several intractable PAH isomer pairs, such as anthracene/phenanthrene, benzo[a]anthracene/chrysene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene/benzo[k]fluoranthene, with resolutions of 3.0, 1.1, and 4.1, respectively, which were difficult to be baseline separated on a HP-5MS column with a resolution of 1.0. In addition, the IRMOF-1 and IRMOF-3 coated capillary columns offered a clear group separation of the PCB isomers and a linear range covering three orders of magnitude. The relative standard deviations for the five replicate separations of PAHs were 0.23–0.26% and 2.1–4.5% for retention time and peak area, respectively. The fabricated IRMOF coated capillary columns have been shown to be very promising for the separation of POPs with good reproducibility, high resolution, great selectivity, and a wide linear range.
A novel non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis - tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous separation, identification and quantification of nine designer benzodiazepines (bentazepam, etizolam, deschloroetizolam, diclazepam, flubromazepam, flubromazolam, nimetazepam, phenazepam, and pyrazolam) was developed. A non-aqueous running electrolyte consisting of 25mM ammonium acetate with 100mM trifluoroacetic acid in acetonitrile was used. The separation was carried out using a semipermanent coated capillary (successive multiple ionic-polymer coating) with a strong anodic electroosmotic flow at a negative separation voltage within twelve minutes. Electrospray ionization with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was utilized for the identification and quantification of selected designer benzodiazepines in a positive ionization mode. The developed method was validated and applied on the analysis of spiked serum sample following a simple liquid-liquid extraction. The LODs of the designer benzodiazepines were between 1.5 and 15.0ngmL−1. [Display omitted] •A novel NACE-MS/MS method for the determination of designer benzodiazepines was developed.•Method was validated and applied for analysis of designer benzodiazepines in human serum.•The method can be utilized for toxicological analyses of abused designer benzodiazepines.
Inspired by the chiral recognition ability of β‐cyclodextrin and the natural adhesive properties of polydopamine under alkaline conditions, in this study, a rapid and in situ modification strategy was developed to fabricate β‐cyclodextrin/polydopamine composite material coated‐capillary columns for open tubular capillary electrochromatography. The results of scanning electron microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, streaming potential, and electro‐osmotic flow studies indicated that β‐cyclodextrin/polydopamine was successfully fixed on the inner wall of the capillary column. This coating can be achieved within 1 h affording a greatly reduced capillary preparation time. The performance of the β‐cyclodextrin/polydopamine‐coated capillary was validated by the analysis of seven pairs of chiral analytes, namely epinephrine, norepinephrine, isoprenaline, terbutaline, verapamil, tryptophane, carvedilol. Good enantioseparation efficiencies were achieved for all. For three consecutive runs, the relative standard deviations for the migration times of the analytes for intraday, interday, and column‐to‐column repeatability were in the range of 0.41–1.74, 1.03–4.18, and 1.66–8.24%, respectively. Moreover, the separation efficiency of the β‐cyclodextrin/polydopamine‐coated capillary column did not decrease obviously over 90 runs. The strategy should also be feasible to introduce and immobilize other chiral selectors on the inner walls surface of capillary columns.
The stability of capillaries coated with highly charged polyelectrolytes under various analytical conditions was studied, as well as their performance for the analysis of proteins by Capillary Electrophoreis (CE) over a wide range of pH (2.5–9.3). In this study, fused silica capillaries were modified either with a poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (PDADMAC) monolayer or PDADMAC/poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) multilayer coatings, using optimal coating conditions previously determined [1–3]. Results show that the coated capillaries are remarkably stable and efficient to limit protein adsorption under a variety of extreme electrophoretic conditions even in the absence of the coating agent in the background electrolyte which is exceptional for non-covalent coatings. Monolayer coated capillaries were demonstrated for the first time to be stable to acidic rinses and to organic solvents which proves that the stability of the capillaries is highly dependent on the coating procedure used. In addition, PDADMAC/PSS multilayer coatings were found to be stable to alkaline treatments. PDADMAC/PSS coated capillaries gave excellent performances for the analysis of proteins covering a large range of p I (4–11) and of molecular weight (14–65 kDa) over a wide pH range (i.e. 2.5–9.3). Even at high pH 9.3, protein analysis was possible with very good repeatabilities (RSD tm < 1% and RSD CPA < 2.6% ( n ≥ 8)) and high peak efficiencies in the order of 700,000.
Glycosylation plays an important role in protein conformations and functions as well as many biological activities. Capillary electrophoresis combined with various detection methods provided remarkable developments for high‐sensitivity glycan profiling. The coating of the capillary is needed for highly polar molecules from complex biosamples. A poly(vinyl alcohol)‐coated capillary is commonly utilized in the capillary electrophoresis separation of saccharides sample due to the high‐hydrophilicity properties. A modified facile coating workflow was carried out to acquire a novel multiple‐layer poly(vinyl alcohol)‐coated capillary for highly sensitive and stable analysis of glycans. The migration time fluctuation was used as index in the optimization of layers and a double layer was finally chosen, considering both the effects and simplicity in fabrication. With migration time relative standard deviation less than 1% and theoretical plates kept stable during 100 consecutive separations, the method was presented to be suitable for the analysis of glycosylation with wide linear dynamic range and good reproducibility. The glycan profiling of enzymatically released N‐glycans from human serum was obtained by the presented capillary electrophoresis method combined with mass spectrometry detection with acceptable results.
In this study, a metal‐organic framework (MOF), [Mn(cam)(bpy)], was synthesized and characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. An open‐tubular capillary column was fabricated from [Mn(cam)(bpy)] via the amide coupling method. Ten types of sulfonamides were separated through the fabricated capillary column, which showed a good limits of detection ( 0.9987). The intra‐day, inter‐day and column‐to‐column relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the migration times ranged from 0.44 to 4.87%, and the peak area RSDs ranged from 0.80 to 7.28%. The developed capillary electrochromatography method can be successfully utilized for the determination of sulfonamides in tap water and milk samples.
•The nanoparticles were coated onto the inner surface of capillary to provide higher analytical efficiency.•The antibodies were immobilized on the NP-coated capillary with oriented antibody immobilization.•The immunoaffinity in-tube SPME/PETIA based on OAI capillary provided 500 times higher sensitivity than PETIA. A combination between modification with nanoparticles (NP) and oriented antibody immobilization (OAI) on the inner face of capillary was for the first time developed for immunoaffinity in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to promise high antigen extraction capacity. β2-microglobin (β2MG) and cystatin C (Cys-C) were selected as model antigens. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) NPs were chemically immobilized onto the capillary by a ring-opening reaction. Antibodies for β2MG and Cys-C were immobilized on the NPs through OAI. Scanning electron micrograph of the OAI capillary clearly showed that the PGMA NPs were coated onto the inner surface of capillary in a dense monolayer. In addition, random antibody immobilized (RAI) capillaries and OAI capillaries without NP were also prepared as controls. The extraction capacities of OAI capillaries were 2.02 and 2.18mgm−1 for β2MG and Cys-C, and were about 5 and 6 times as many as RAI capillaries and OAI capillaries without NP, respectively. The resultant capillaries were used as in-tube SPME materials to enrich β2MG and Cys-C for particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay. When using 1.0mgL−1 standard solutions, the recoveries of OAI capillaries, RAI capillaries and OAI capillaries without NP were 103.6% and 96.8%, 48.5% and 31.5%, and 24.2% and 25.7% for β2MG and Cys-C, respectively. Furthermore, the method quantitation limit by OAI capillaries was 5 and 10 times lower than that by RAI capillaries and OAI capillaries without NP, respectively. This result indicated that the NP-coated capillaries with OAI are more suitable for using as immunoaffinity in-tube SPME materials than that with RAI.
A new application of the polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) in capillary electrophoresis is reported. Poly(1‐vinyl‐3‐butylimidazolium bromide) was physically adsorbed on silica capillary as the simple and effective coating for capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis, in which the PIL is not present in the background electrolyte. The electroosmotic flow (EOF) of the PIL‐coated capillary as compared with that of the bare fused‐silica capillary shows a different dependence on electrolyte pH values. The EOF is reversed over a wide pH range from 3.0 to 9.0 and shows good repeatability. It is also found that the coated capillary has a good tolerance to some organic solvents, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl. The PIL‐coated capillary has been employed in different areas. Both the basic proteins and anionic analytes can be well separated by PIL‐coated capillaries in a fast and easy way. The PIL‐coated capillary is also able to separate organic acid additives in a grape juice. The results showed that this type of coating provides an alternative to the CE separation of anions and basic proteins.
We show that capillary-zone electrophoresis–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-ESI-MS/MS) generates very large numbers of peptide and protein identifications (IDs) by combining four technologies: a separation capillary coated to generate very low electroosmosis, an electrokinetically pumped sheath-flow nanoelectrospray interface to produce high-sensitivity ionization, an Orbitrap Fusion Lumos Tribrid platform to provide high-speed analysis, and an advanced-peak-determination (APD) algorithm to take advantage of the mass spectrometer’s data-acquisition speed. The use of the APD algorithm resulted in 2 times more identifications than the standard peak algorithm. We also investigated the effect of the isolation window, injection time, and loading amount. Optimization of these parameters produced over 27 000 peptide identifications and nearly 4400 protein-group identifications from 220 ng of K562-cell digest in a single 120 min run, which is 2.7 times more IDs produced by CZE-ESI-MS/MS than by the previous state-of-the-art technique.