A series of arylidene-2-(4-(4-methoxy/bromophenyl) thiazol-2-yl) hydrazines ( – ) and 1-(4-(4-methoxy/bromophenyl) thiazol-2-yl)-2-cyclohexylidene/cyclopentylidene hydrazines ( – / – ) were synthesized, characterized and screened for their antimicrobial activities. The structures of synthesized compounds were established by spectroscopic (FT-IR, H NMR, C NMR, Mass) and elemental analyses. Both the anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities with MIC values of compounds were evaluated. The results of anti-bacterial screening reveal that among all the compounds screened eight compounds showed moderate to good anti-bacterial activity while ten of the newly synthesized compounds displayed good to excellent anti-fungal activity. Among the tested compounds, the most effective compounds with MIC value in the range of 6.25–25 μg/ml are , , , , , and against three fungal strains viz. , and . The synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of a series of arylidene-2-(4-(4-methoxy/bromophenyl) thiazol-2-yl) hydrazines ( – ) and 1-(4-(4-methoxy/bromophenyl) thiazol-2-yl)-2-cyclohexylidene/cyclopentylidene hydrazines ( – / – ) were reported.
Ionic liquids are remarkable chemical compounds, which find applications in many areas of modern science. Because of their highly tunable nature and exceptional properties, ionic liquids have become essential players in the fields of synthesis and catalysis, extraction, electrochemistry, analytics, biotechnology, etc. Apart from physical and chemical features of ionic liquids, their high biological activity has been attracting significant attention from biochemists, ecologists, and medical scientists. This Review is dedicated to biological activities of ionic liquids, with a special emphasis on their potential employment in pharmaceutics and medicine. The accumulated data on the biological activity of ionic liquids, including their antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties, are discussed in view of possible applications in drug synthesis and drug delivery systems. Dedicated attention is given to a novel active pharmaceutical ingredient-ionic liquid (API-IL) concept, which suggests using traditional drugs in the form of ionic liquid species. The main aim of this Review is to attract a broad audience of chemical, biological, and medical scientists to study advantages of ionic liquid pharmaceutics. Overall, the discussed data highlight the importance of the research direction defined as “Ioliomics”, studies of ions in liquids in modern chemistry, biology, and medicine.
Among thymol, carvacrol, citronellal, eugenol and terpinen-4-ol, thymol showed the highest antibacterial activity against , and . Thymol was then encapsulated into water dispersible submicron sized ethylcellulose/methylcellulose spheres, attaining the relatively high thymol loading level of 43.53% (weight of encapsulated thymol to weight of the thymol-loaded spheres). When tested against the same three bacterial strains, the encapsulated thymol gave comparable minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values to the unencapsulated compound while mostly showing lower MIC and MBC values than the conventionally used preservative, methyl- -hydroxybenzoate (methylparaben). The use of encapsulated thymol at 0.078, 0.156 and 0.625 mg ml (0.52, 1.04 and 4.16 mmol , respectively) in cosmetic lotion formulations provided total suppression of viable , and growth (all initially seeded at 10 cfu ml ), respectively, over the three month test period, whereas unencapsulated thymol showed effective suppression for only 2–4 weeks. Effective bacterial suppression by encapsulated thymol was also observed when used in cream and aqueous gel cosmetic formulations.
Abstract We have developed a silver-releasing biomaterial with promising potential for wound healing applications. The material is made of ultrashort peptides which can self-assemble in water to form hydrogels. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized in situ within the biomaterial, using only UV irradiation and no additional chemical reducing agents. The synthetic strategy allows precise control of the nanoparticle size, with the network of peptide fibers preventing aggregation of Ag NPs. The biomaterial shows increased mechanical strength compared to the hydrogel control. We observed a sustained release of Ag NPs over a period of 14 days. This is a crucial prerequisite for effective anti-bacterial therapy. The ability to inhibit bacterial growth was tested using different bacterial strains, namely gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus . Inhibition of bacterial growth was observed for all strains. The best results were obtained for Pseudomonas aeruginosa which is known for exhibiting multidrug resistance. Biocompatibility studies on HDFa cells, using Ag NP-containing hydrogels, did not show any significant influence on cell viability. We propose this silver-releasing hydrogel as an excellent biomaterial with great potential for applications in wound healing due to its low silver content, sustained silver nanoparticle release and biocompatibility.
Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections that have evolved via natural selection have increased alarmingly at a global level. Thus, there is a strong need for the development of novel antibiotics for the treatment of these infections. Functionalized carbon nanotubes through their unique properties hold great promise in the fight against multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. This new family of nanovectors for therapeutic delivery proved to be innovative and efficient for the transport and cellular translocation of therapeutic molecules. The current review examines the latest progress in the antibacterial activity of carbon nanotubes and their composites.
Curcumin (CM) possesses multiple biological activities. However, poor water solubility and low bioavailability limit its application in biomedical fields. CM nanoparticles (NPs) (230–240 nm) were prepared by solution-enhanced dispersion via supercritical CO (SEDS) (22–22.5 MPa pressure, 31–32.5 °C temperature) and its biological functions were evaluated in this study. The Minimum inhibitory concentration of CM NPs against (∼250 μg/mL) was lower than CM-DMSO (∼500 μg/mL). Meanwhile, CM NPs showed effective anti-oxidant ability at a concentration raging from 125 to 2000 μg/mL. CM NPs showed time-dependent intracellular internalization ability, resulting in an enhanced anti-cancer effect on colorectal cancer cells (HCT116), and the mechanism could be explained by cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase associated with inducing apoptotic cells. Moreover, CM NPs exhibited reduced cytotoxicity on normal cells (NCM460) compared to CM-DMSO and 5-Fu. In conclusion, CM NPs prepared via SEDS showed potentials in biomedical applications.
Thiazolidinone is considered as a biologically important active scaffold that possesses almost all types of biological activities. Successful introduction of ralitoline as a potent anti-convulsant, etozoline as a antihypertensive, pioglitazone as a hypoglycemic agent and thiazolidomycin activity against streptomyces species proved potential of thiazolidinone moiety. This diversity in the biological response profile has attracted the attention of many researchers to explore this skeleton to its multiple potential against several activities. This review is complementary to earlier reviews and aims to review the work reported on various biological activities of thiazolidinone derivatives from year 2000 to the beginning of 2011. Data are presented for active compounds, some of which have passed the preclinical testing stage.
Triazole compounds containing three nitrogen atoms in the five-membered aromatic azole ring are readily able to bind with a variety of enzymes and receptors in biological system via diverse non-covalent interactions, and thus display versatile biological activities. The related researches in triazole-based derivatives as medicinal drugs have been an extremely active topic, and numerous excellent achievements have been acquired. Noticeably, a large number of triazole compounds as clinical drugs or candidates have been frequently employed for the treatment of various types of diseases, which have shown their large development value and wide potential as medicinal agents. This work systematically reviewed the recent researches and developments of the whole range of triazole compounds as medicinal drugs, including antifungal, anticancer, antibacterial, antitubercular, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, anticonvulsant, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, anti-obesitic, antihistaminic, anti-neuropathic, antihypertensive as well as other biological activities. The perspectives of the foreseeable future in the research and development of triazole-based compounds as medicinal drugs are also presented. It is hoped that this review will serve as a stimulant for new thoughts in the quest for rational designs of more active and less toxic triazole medicinal drugs.
Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology radically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. AgNPs play an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, particularly in nanomedicine. Although several noble metals have been used for various purposes, AgNPs have been focused on potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss the synthesis of AgNPs using physical, chemical, and biological methods. We also discuss the properties of AgNPs and methods for their characterization. More importantly, we extensively discuss the multifunctional bio-applications of AgNPs; for example, as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer agents, and the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of AgNPs. In addition, we discuss therapeutic approaches and challenges for cancer therapy using AgNPs. Finally, we conclude by discussing the future perspective of AgNPs.