Water-saving cultivation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important technique for achieving high yield and high water use eficiency (WUE) in the North China Plain (NCP) where water resources are in shortage. In order to determine the effects of supplemental irrigation based on soil water content on crop evapotranspiration (ET), DM, grain yield and WUE in wheat, treatments were designed to vary the relative soil water content at jointing and anthesis stages: I-70 (70%, 70%) and I-75 (75%, 75%) with rain-fed (I-0) and traditional irrigation (I-ck) as contrasts. The results indicated that the irrigation amount of I-70 and I-75 were significantly lower than that of I-ck by 45.1 to 132.4 mm, but soil water depletion increased by 23.5 to 35.4 mm. Although the total ET throughout the growing season (ETt) of I-75 was less than that of I-ck, the ratio to ETt from anthesis to maturity increased significantly. The DM partitioning ratio was decreased in vegetable organs, but increased in grain for I-75 compared with I-ck. The grain yield for I-75 was significantly higher than that of I-0 and I-70, whereas nonsignificant difference was observed between I-75 and I-ck, and the WUE and irrigation water use efficiency of I-75 were higher than those of Ick by 11.0% and 87.4% in 2008-2009 and 3.5% and 34.0% in 2009-2010. Thus, I-75 can be developed as an optimal water-saving irrigation regimes in the NCP.
Consumption of ultrapure water (UPW) during semiconductor manufacturing processes is a very important topic. A new water-dispensing arm design uses a small volume of UPW to remove slurry residue and defects inside pad grooves. This innovative water conditioning arm, in contrast to the conventional atomizer and diamond disc, not only reduces UPW consumption by 87% but also reduces scratch defects caused by diamond abrasive particles. The small water volume arm conditioning system injects UPW with diameters at micro levels. Experimental results show that oxide film removal amount under continuous polishing conditions is maintained at 716 A even after 20 runs. The removal amount and profile not only is maintained but improved by over 2% in comparison with the conventional atomizer under no-dressing conditions. Finally, using a water pump to increase the water pressure up to 50 km/cm 2 and treating for 5 s resulted in only 0.5-mm dishing for the IC1010 polish pad.
The characterization of water and energy consumptions is essential in order to define strategies for their rational use. The way these resources are used in households is the path for efficient and rational management, interdependent from each other. It is believed that there are significant differences between the patterns of water and energy consumption in rural and urban areas, where influencing factors should also be identified. This article aims to provide some preliminary results of a research project named ENERWAT, with the main goal to characterize the relation between water and energy consumption at the end use level for urban and rural environments. One of the goals of the aforementioned project was the design, application, and results analysis of a survey, in order to find the main differences in the water and energy consumptions at the end use level and the factors that influence it in urban and rural households. A total of 245 households participated in the research during 2016 (110 urban dwellings and 135 rural), responding to questions on their family composition, dwellings characterization, water and energy consumption habits, and conservation behaviors of these resources. The project also includes the instrumentation and monitoring of dwellings in rural and urban environments to quantify the water consumption and related energy consumption. This stage is still in progress and includes in situ measurements of nine different households (four in rural and five in urban environments) during at least one year. In this article, some of the results obtained by the survey application and the in situ measurements are presented. Despite the large number of data and the associated complexity, it can be concluded that the joint analysis of the results allows identification of a connection between water and energy consumption, as well as a household's consumption patterns.
Water quality is an important criterion for evaluating the suitability of water for drinking and domestic purpose. The main objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical characterization of groundwater for drinking water consumption. Ten captured sources were selected from three aquifers including the Guelma Mio-Plio-Quaternary alluvial basin; the Senonian Heliopolis Neritic limestone aquifer, and the Eocene limestones of Ras El Agba-Sellaoua aquifer. The analyses concerned the periods of high water in May 2017 and low water in August 2017. Twelve parameters were determined for the water samples: pH, (°C), , Ca , Mg , Na , K , Cl , HCO , SO , NO , (hydrotimetric degree), (total alkalinity titration). The interpretation of the various analytical results allowed the determination of the chemical facies and the classification of the groundwater aquifers as follows: ( ) in the alluvial layer, the gypsiferous marl substratum and the clays of the three terraces (high, medium and low) have given the water a chlorinated calcium chemical facies in the east part of the study area and travertines feeding partly alluvial layer, and have given a bicarbonated calcium water facies in the west, ( ) in the Senonian of Heliopolis limestone and Eocene carbonate formations of Ras El Agba-Sellaoua, the chemical facies are calcium bicarbonate. Water isotopes (δ O and δD) helped to determine the origin of groundwater. Overall, the groundwater in the area is hard and has significant to excessive mineralization. It is progressively degraded in the direction of flow, especially in the Guelma alluvial aquifer.
Compared to conventional energy technologies, hydropower has the lowest carbon emissions per kWh. Therefore, hydropower electricity production can contribute to combat climate change challenges. However, hydropower electricity production may at the same time contribute to environmental impacts and has been characterized as a large water consumer with impacts on aquatic biodiversity. Life Cycle Assessment is not yet able to assess the biodiversity impact of water consumption from hydropower electricity production on a global scale. The first step to assess these biodiversity impacts in Life Cycle Assessment is to quantify the water consumption per kWh energy produced. We calculated catchment-specific net water consumption values for Norway ranging between 0 and 0.012 m /kWh. Further, we developed the first characterization factors for quantifying the aquatic biodiversity impacts of water consumption in a post-glaciated region. We apply our approach to quantify the biodiversity impact per kWh Norwegian hydropower electricity. Our results vary over six orders of magnitude and highlight the importance of a spatial explicit approach. This study contributes to assessing the biodiversity impacts of water consumption globally in Life Cycle Assessment.
In this article a new characterization model and factors are proposed for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of water consumption on instream freshwater ecosystems. Impact pathways of freshwater consumption leading to ecosystem damage are described and the alteration of instream physical habitat is identified as a critical midpoint for ecosystem quality. The LCIA characterization model aims to assess the change in habitat quantity due to consumptive water use. It is based on statistical, physical habitat simulation for benthic invertebrates, fish species and their size classes, and guilds of fish sharing common habitat preferences. A habitat change potential (HCP) midpoint, mechanistic indicator, is developed and computed on the French river network at the river reach scale (the river segment with variable length between the upstream and downstream nodes in the hydrographic network), for median annual discharges and dry seasons. Aggregated, multi-species HCPs at a river reach are proposed using various aggregation approaches. Subsequently, the characterization factors are spatially aggregated at watershed and sub-watershed scales. HCP is highly correlated with median and low flow discharges, which determine hydraulic characteristics of reaches. Aggregation of individual HCPs at reach scale is driven by the species most sensitive to water consumption. In spatially aggregated HCPs, consistently with their reduced smaller average discharge rate, small stream habitats determine the overall watershed characterization. The study is aimed primarily at life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners and LCIA modelers. However, since it is the result of a productive cross-fertilization between the ecohydrology and LCA domains, it could be potentially useful for watershed management and risk assessment as well. At the moment, the proposed model is applicable in France. For a broader implementation, the development of global, high resolution river databases or the generalization of the model are needed. Our new factor represents nevertheless an advancement in freshwater ecosystems LCIA laying the basis for new metrics for biodiversity assessment.
Understanding the environmental impacts associated with water-related adaptation measures plays an important role in decision making, as some adaptation measures may not offer environmental benefits compared to traditional water systems. The water depletion index (WDI) is one water stress indicator used to estimate the impacts of water consumption. A dynamic WDI was constructed and employed in this study under climate change scenarios with weather and streamflow modeling. To demonstrate whether adaptation measures can reduce water depletion and to demonstrate how dynamic WDI affects assessment results, Taipei, a highly developed and populated city in Taiwan, was selected as a case study site. Decreased WDI from July to August and increased WDI from September to October were simulated under climate change. This approach implied that when measuring water consumption impacts, the WDI should be applied according to the corresponding time period. Additionally, by substituting 70% of potable water with rainwater in a four-story building, 17.9–159.3 m of the freshwater depletion risk might be reduced every month. As adaptation measures can be long-term strategies and long-lasting infrastructures, a dynamic WDI could provide policy makers with a method to accurately and effectively assess the impacts of applying water-related adaptation measures in response to climate change.
The exploitation of renewable energy sources and the use of primary energy saving techniques have been recognized as key solutions to face climate changes. The consequent energy policies are pushing the transition from a centralized power generation system to a distributed polygeneration system able to meet simultaneous heating, cooling and electricity demand. However, small scale polygeneration plants do not ensure any primary energy and cost saving without a proper sizing and operation of the plant. Furthermore, a flexible configuration of the waste heat recovery system (WHRS) adopted for polygeneration purposes can be equally important. Therefore, starting from the experimental data concerning a 15 kW micro-CHP plant previously designed and prototyped, the paper addresses the performance assessment of a CHCP plant configuration based on the same basic engine-electric generator system through the 1D thermo-fluid dynamic characterization of an alternative double water circuit WHRS. This configuration, delivering thermal power at different temperature level, could be useful to meet thermal and cooling demand from different user or when seasonal energy demand occurs. This paper also provides an effective approach for the design of WHRS which are capable to ensure a reasonable matching between the temperature level required by the user and that provided by the plant. In this way, being the energy saving dependent on the thermal power recovered and actually exploited, and so on the temperature level which characterizes the user's heat demand, primary energy savings are more easily achievable even when small scale polygeneration applications are considered. Results shows the possibility of supplying an absorption chiller and obtaining a coolling capacity of about 10.5 kW from the resulting CHCP plant configuration.
The increasing shortage of water for crop irrigation in arid and semiarid regions is encouraging the use of non-conventional resources. In the last decade, seawater desalination has consolidated its position as an alternative source to increase the supply for agricultural irrigation in Spain and Israel, where the farmers' acceptance is progressively rising, despite the supply price being much higher than that of other conventional water sources. This article describes the current situation of desalinated seawater production and supply to agriculture in the southeast of Spain, and analyzes key questions such as its role in regional water planning, the infrastructure needed for conveyance and distribution, the energy requirements, the production and distribution costs, and the final price to farmers. The study is based on descriptive and quantitative data collected from desalination plants and irrigation district managers through technical questionnaires and personal interviews. The results show how seawater desalination is effectively alleviating the regional constraints in the irrigated agriculture supply, and why it is becoming strategic to maintaining food production and socioeconomic development. However, the high-energy requirements and associated costs in comparison with other water sources limit a more widespread use for agriculture, and for this reason desalinated water still only plays a complementary role in most irrigation districts.
Researchers have spent decades exploring strategies for reducing energy consumption in buildings worldwide, proposing passive solutions and optimizing active systems. However, no breakthrough technology has been developed. The use of thermoelectricity in buildings for heating, cooling and ventilation has been proposed as an alternative solution to many systems anchored in our day-to-day. This paper seeks to classify, analyze and summarize the possibilities of the thermoelectric technology integration in buildings. The results obtained from the search were divided into two main groups: systems that are integrated in the building envelope and non-integrated systems that operate independently. Among the analyzed parameters, on the one hand the characteristics of the prototypes' components needed for the construction were described. On the other, the thermoelectric specific parameters required for optimization under the operating scenarios' conditions were studied. The results of most of the studies showed that even though the technology can provide the comfort conditions, still the performance of these systems is not competitive compared to conventional vapor compression systems. However, the advantages of thermoelectricity such us the non-use of refrigerants or the high durability, makes this technology an alternative solution to consider, of which interest is growing in line with recent studies.