, , and have become ubiquitous in today's mass media and are universally known terms used in everyday speech. If we look behind these often misused buzzwords, we find at least one common element, namely data. Although we hardly use these terms in the “classic discipline” of mineral economics, we find various similarities. The case of phosphate data bears numerous challenges in multiple forms such as uncertainties, fuzziness, or misunderstandings. Often simulation models are used to support decision-making processes. For all these models, reliable and accurate sets of data are an essential premise. A significant number of data series relating to the phosphorus supply chain, including resource inventory or production, consumption, and trade data ranging from phosphate rock to intermediates like marketable concentrate to final phosphate fertilizers, is available. Data analysts and modelers must often choose from various sources, and they also depend on data access. Based on a transdisciplinary orientation, we aim to help colleagues in all fields by illustrating quantitative differences among the reported data, taking a somewhat engineering approach. We use common descriptive statistics to measure and causally explain discrepancies in global phosphate-rock production data issued by the US Geological Survey, the British Geological Survey, Austrian World Mining Data, the International Fertilizer Association, and CRU International over time, with a focus on the most recent years. Furthermore, we provide two snapshots of global-trade flows for phosphate-rock concentrate, in 2015 and 1985, and compare these to an approach using total-nutrient data. We find discrepancies of up to 30% in reported global production volume, whereby the major share could be assigned directly to China and Peru. Consequently, we call for a global, independent agency to collect and monitor phosphate data in order to reduce uncertainties or fuzziness and, thereby, ultimately support policy-making processes.
The paper describes the relation between fuzzy and non-fuzzy description logics. It gives an overview about current research in these areas and describes the difference between tasks for description logics and fuzzy logics. The paper also deals with the transformation properties of description logics to fuzzy logics and backwards. While the process of transformation from a description logic to a fuzzy logic is a trivial inclusion, the other way of reducing information from fuzzy logic to description logic is a difficult task, that will be topic of future work.
In this chapter we detail various experimental approaches to characterize the fuzziness of complexes made of the C-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein (N ) from three representative paramyxoviruses and of the C-terminal X domain (XD) of the homologous phosphoprotein. We discuss the advantages, the limitations, as well as the caveats of the various methods. We describe experimental data showing that paramyxoviral N –XD complexes are characterized by a considerable amount of conformational heterogeneity. We also detail recent data that revealed that N is highly malleable, i.e., it displays a partner-mediated polymorphism. All the results suggest that N plasticity and fuzziness play a role in the coordination and regulation of the N interaction network so as to ensure efficient transcription and replication.
To improve the generalization performance of random vector functional link networks (RVFL), we propose a novel fuzziness based RVFL algorithm (F-RVFL) from the perspective of fuzzy theory for semi-supervised learning. Compared with the RVFL algorithm, the proposed F-RVFL algorithm shows better generalization performance on classification problems. In addition, we studied the relationship between the samples' output fuzziness and the classifier performance and obtained some useful conclusions, which gives a new direction for RVFL performance optimization.
We study the extent of quantum gravitational effects in the internal region of non-singular, Hayward-like solutions of Einstein’s field equations according to the formalism known as horizon quantum mechanics. We grant a microscopic description to the horizon by considering a huge number of soft, off-shell gravitons, which superimpose in the same quantum state, as suggested by Dvali and Gomez. In addition to that, the constituents of such a configuration are understood as loosely confined in a binding harmonic potential. A simple analysis shows that the resolution of a central singularity through quantum physics does not tarnish the classical description, which is bestowed upon this extended self-gravitating system by General Relativity. Finally, we estimate the appearance of an internal horizon as being negligible, because of the suppression of the related probability caused by the large number of virtual gravitons.