Most genome-wide assays provide averages across large numbers of cells, but recent technological advances promise to overcome this limitation. Pioneering single-cell assays are now available for genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome profiling. Here, we describe how these different dimensions can be combined into multi-omics assays that provide comprehensive profiles of the same cell.
To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2015.10.006 Byline: Volker M. Lauschke, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg Author Affiliation: (1) Karolinska Institutet, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacogenetics, Stockholm, Sweden
Once a widely ignored phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol now attracts great therapeutic interest, especially in epilepsy and cancer. As with many rising trends, various myths and misconceptions have accompanied this heightened public interest and intrigue. This forum article examines and attempts to clarify some areas of contention.
To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2016.05.003 Byline: Bernhard Voelkl, Hanno Wurbel Author Affiliation: (1) Animal Welfare Division, Veterinary Public Health Institute, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
The Progressive MS Alliance Industry Forum describes a new approach to address barriers to developing treatments for progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). This innovative model promises to facilitate robust collaboration between industry, academia, and patient organizations and accelerate research towards the overarching goal of developing safe and effective treatments for progressive MS.
Proteomic studies find many proteins in unexpected cellular locations. Can functional components of organelles be distinguished from biochemical artefacts or misguided cellular sorting? The clue might reside in compositional changes that follow biological challenges and that can be decoded by machine learning.
Drug development consumes huge amounts of time and money and the search for novel analgesics, which are urgently required, is particularly difficult, having resulted in many setbacks in the past. Drug repurposing – the identification of new uses for existing drugs – is an alternative approach, which bypasses most of the time- and cost-consuming components of drug development. Recent, unexpected findings suggest a role for several existing drugs, such as minocycline, ceftriaxone, sivelestat, and pioglitazone, as novel analgesics in chronic and neuropathic pain states. Here, we discuss these findings as well as their proposed antihyperalgesic mechanisms and outline the merits of pathway-based repurposing screens, in combination with bioinformatics and novel cellular reprogramming techniques, for the identification of novel analgesics.
Curcumin, by virtue of its ability to function as an immunomodulator, has the potential to serve as an adjunct drug to treat infectious diseases and provide long-term protection. The current need is to establish clinical trials with curcumin as an adjunct drug against specific infectious diseases.
The role of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer progression is a long-debated issue. Recent evidence shows that EMT is not a prerequisite for cancer metastasis, but does confer chemoresistance. Future studies are needed to profile EMT events in different cancer types and under different circumstances to explore their potentials as therapeutic targets.
Clinical trials ‘in a dish’ involve testing medical therapies for safety or effectiveness in the laboratory with human tissue. This has become possible owing to recent biotechnology advances including induced pluripotent stem cells, organs-on-a-chip, and whole-genome sequencing. We provide here an overview of the landscape and highlight steps the FDA is taking to advance the science of clinical trials in a dish and to support the development and validation of new regulatory paradigms to assess drug safety using these new technologies.