BACKGROUND: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Understanding the incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism is important for evaluating the need for screening but is also a subject of debate because of different inclusion criteria among previous studies. We determined the incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after acute pulmonary embolism and the utility of a screening program for this disease. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a cohort screening study in an unselected series of consecutive patients (n=866) diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism between January 2001 and July 2007. All patients who had not been previously diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and had survived until study inclusion were invited for echocardiography. Patients with echocardiographic suspicion of PH underwent complete work-up for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, including ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy and right heart catheterization. RESULTS: After an average follow-up of 34 months of all 866 patients, PH was diagnosed in 19 patients by routine clinical care and in 10 by our screening program; 4 patients had chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, all diagnosed by routine clinical care. The cumulative incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after all cause pulmonary embolism was 0.57% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-1.2%) and after unprovoked pulmonary embolism 1.5% (95% CI 0.08-3.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Because of the low incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism and the very low yield of the echocardiography based screening program, wide scale implementation of prolonged follow-up including echocardiography of all patients with pulmonary embolism to detect chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension does not seem to be warranted.
P>Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases, endemic in more than 70 countries, mainly within the developing world. More than 200 million people might be infected worldwide; about 20 million of those might develop severe disease. The hepatosplenic form of schistosomiasis is the most prevalent form of chronic disease, characterised by the presence of periportal fibrosis and portal hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension is a well-recognised complication of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Recent prevalent studies revealed that schistosomiasis patients may develop precapillary and postcapillary forms of pulmonary hypertension, reinforcing the role of invasive haemodynamic measurements for the proper diagnosis. These studies also demonstrated that schistosomiasis associated pulmonary arterial hypertension may represent the most prevalent form of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Many aspects regarding the appropriate management of Sch-PAH patients still remain to be elucidated, as the use of specific PAH therapy. Although the ongoing control programmes that started within the 1980s have clearly improved the schistosomiasis cenario worldwide, Sch-PAH will be seen for decades after proper control is reached, strengthening the current need for comprehensive studies aiming to clarify the multiple mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of this particular subgroup of PAH.
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (PPHN) in children with Down syndrome (DS) and to assess its impact on neonatal factors. It was a prospective study of a birth cohort of children with DS born between 2003 and 2006 registered by the Dutch Paediatric Surveillance Unit (DPSU). A CHD occurred in 43% of 482 children with trisomy 21. Atrioventricular septal defect was found in 54%, ventricular septal defect in 33.3% and patent ductus arteriosus in 5.8%. The incidence of PPHN in DS was 5.2%, which is significantly higher than the general population (p < 0.001). The reported mortality in newborns with DS was overall 3.3% and was still significant higher in children with a CHD versus no CHD (5.8% versus 1.5%) (p = 0.008). The presence of CHD in children with DS had no influence on their birth weight, mean gestational age and Apgar score. In neonates with DS, we found not only a 43% prevalence of CHD, but also a high incidence of PPHN at 5.2%. Early recognition of the cardiac condition of neonates with DS seems justified.
Summary Introduction The functional significance of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in COPD is unclear. The purpose of the study was to define the prevalence, severity and associated functional impact of PH in patients with severe COPD listed for lung transplant. Methods A retrospective review of the Organ Procurement and Tissue Network (OPTN) database between 1997 and 2006 for patients with the primary diagnosis of COPD. Baseline demographics, hemodynamics, pulmonary function tests, six minute walk distance test (6MWD) and pre-transplant survival data was analyzed. Results 4930 patients with COPD had evaluable right heart catheterization data (RHC). PH was present in 30.4%, with pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH) accounting for an additional 17.2% of patients. Patients with pulmonary hypertension walked an average of 28 m less than those with normal hemodynamics. Normal hemodynamics group: 261 ± 104 m, PH; 238 ± 106 m ( p < 0.01), PVH: 228 ± 104 m ( p < 0.05). In a multivariable analysis, the mean pulmonary artery pressure ( β = −1.33; p = 0.01) was an independent predictor of a reduced 6MWD, as were forced vital capacity ( β = 1.48; p < 0.001) and patient age ( β = −1.91; p < 0.001). Both PH (HR 1.23 95%CI [1.01–1.50]) and PVH (HR 1.35 95%CI [1.11–1.65]) were shown to be independent risk factors for mortality on the waiting list, even after adjustment for age sex, race, BMI, lung function, severity of illness and diabetes (PH: HR 1.27; 95%CI [1.04–1.55], PVH: HR 1.40; 95%CI [1.13–1.73]). Conclusion PH is common in advanced COPD and is associated with functional impairment and an increased mortality risk. Stratification by RHC determined pulmonary hemodynamics appears important in distinguishing distinct clinical phenotypes.
Purpose: To test the reliability of potentially new computed tomographic (CT) indicators of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to establish whether a combination of CT and echocardiographic measurements was more predictive of PH than either test alone. Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study; patient consent was not required. Seventy-seven patients undergoing right-sided heart catheterization were examined. CT diameters of the main pulmonary artery, ascending aorta, and thoracic vertebra and cross-sectional area of the main pulmonary artery were measured. Segmental and subsegmental arterial diameters were recorded, and segmental artery size was compared with adjacent bronchus size by using a semiquantitative scoring system. The relationship between CT measurements and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) was tested with linear regression. Multivariate regression was used to establish a composite index of mPAP by using CT markers of PH with echocardiography-derived right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP). Post hoc logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed to test the diagnostic ability of the CT-echocardiography composite. Results: The ratios of the diameter of the main pulmonary artery to the diameter of the ascending aorta (R-2 = 0.45; P < .001) and of the cross-sectional area of the pulmonary artery to the diameter of the ascending aorta (R-2 = 0.45; P < .001) correlated equally with mPAP. The ratio of the diameter of the main pulmonary artery to the diameter of the thoracic vertebra, the segmental arterial diameter, and the segmental artery-to-bronchus ratio were related to mPAP but did not strengthen correlations compared with the ratio of the diameter of the main pulmonary artery to the diameter of the ascending aorta alone. A composite index of the ratio of the diameter of the main pulmonary artery to the diameter of the ascending aorta and echocardiography-derived RVSP was more strongly related (R-2 = 0.55) to mPAP and was more significantly predictive of PH than either measure alone. Conclusion: A combination of CT and echocardiographic markers of PH is more closely related to mPAP than either test in isolation. (C) RSNA, 2010
Please cite this paper as: Kiely D, Condliffe R, Webster V, Mills G, Wrench I, Gandhi S, Selby K, Armstrong I, Martin L, Howarth E, Bu'Lock F, Stewart P, Elliot C. Improved survival in pregnancy and pulmonary hypertension using a multiprofessional approach. BJOG 2010;117:565-574. Objective Pregnancy in women with pulmonary hypertension (PH) is reported to carry a maternal mortality rate of 30-56%. We report our experience of the management of pregnancies using a strategy of early introduction of targeted pulmonary vascular therapy and early planned delivery under regional anaesthesia. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting Specialist quaternary referral pulmonary vascular unit. Population Nine women with PH who chose to proceed with ten pregnancies. Methods A retrospective review of the management of all women who chose to continue with their pregnancy in our unit during 2002-2009. Main outcome measures Maternal and fetal survival. Results All women commenced nebulised targeted therapy at 8-34 weeks of gestation. Four women required additional treatment or conversion to intravenous prostanoid therapy. All women were delivered between 26 and 37 weeks of gestation. Delivery was by planned caesarean section in nine cases. All women received regional anaesthesia and were monitored during the peripartum period in a critical care setting. There was no maternal mortality during pregnancy and all infants were free from congenital abnormalities. One woman died 4 weeks after delivery following patient-initiated discontinuation of therapy. All remaining women and infants were alive after a median of 3.2 years (range, 0.8-6.5 years) of follow-up. Conclusion Although the risk of mortality in pregnant women with PH remains significant, we describe improved outcomes in fully counselled women who chose to continue with pregnancy and were managed with a tailored multiprofessional approach involving early introduction of targeted therapy, early planned delivery and regional anaesthetic techniques.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is caused by excessive growth of vascular cells that eventually obliterate the pulmonary arterial lumen, causing right ventricular failure and premature death. Despite some available treatments, its prognosis remains poor, and the cause of the vascular remodeling remains unknown. The vascular smooth muscle cells that proliferate during pulmonary arterial hypertension are characterized by mitochondrial hyperpolarization, activation of the transcription factor NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells), and down-regulation of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.5, all of which suppress apoptosis. We found that mice lacking the gene for the metabolic enzyme malonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase (MCD) do not show pulmonary vasoconstriction during exposure to acute hypoxia and do not develop pulmonary arterial hypertension during chronic hypoxia but have an otherwise normal phenotype. The lack of MCD results in an inhibition of fatty acid oxidation, which in turn promotes glucose oxidation and prevents the shift in metabolism toward glycolysis in the vascular media, which drives the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension in wild-type mice. Clinically used metabolic modulators that mimic the lack of MCD and its metabolic effects normalize the mitochondrial-NFAT-Kv1.5 defects and the resistance to apoptosis in the proliferated smooth muscle cells, reversing the pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia or monocrotaline in mice and rats, respectively. This study of fatty acid oxidation and MCD identifies a critical role for metabolism in both the normal pulmonary circulation (hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction) and pulmonary hypertension, pointing to several potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this deadly disease.
Pulmonary hypertension is an important prognostic factor in cardiac surgery associated with increased morbidity and mortality. With the aging population and the associated increase severity of illness, the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in cardiac surgical patients will increase. In this review, the definition of pulmonary hypertension, the mechanisms and its relationship to right ventricular dysfunction will be presented. Finally, pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapeutic and preventive approaches will be presented.