Homeowners and professional applicators frequently use chemicals to control insect pests in urban environments. The identification and evaluation of determinants of human exposure are critical to conduct reliable and responsible human exposure assessments following indoor residential chemical applications. The effect of sweat on absorbed dose in humans was evaluated with human volunteers who participated in a structured activity program ( SAP). Participants ( n = 20) performed a warm-up exercise to induce light sweating prior to an SAP on chlorpyrifos(cp)-treated nylon carpet. Absorbed daily dosages (ADDs) were calculated using urinary biomonitoring of trichloropyridinol. In two separate exposures, participation in the warm-up exercise prior to the exposure SAP resulted in an increased ADD of CP equivalents by approximately 50%. Measured ADDs averaged 2.8 ( SAP 1) and 2.0 (SAP 2) mug CP equivalents/kg/day in volunteers who participated in the warm-up exercise. In participants who rested prior to the exposures, ADDs were significantly lower at 1.9 (SAP 1) and 1.3 (SAP 2) mug CP equivalents/ kg/day. Perspiration may also be a determinant of exposure in active children and field workers. Measured ADDs were less than estimates of ADD made from environmental measurements including CP deposition, the California roller, and clothing dosimeters worn by participants.
The specific properties of porous materials when wet, namely the cooling effect near the surface due to the heat extraction during water evaporation, were known and used by ancient civilisations. During human perspiration, the necessary heat for sweat evaporation is provided by the cutaneous surface, which induces a temperature drop similar to that observed in a wet porous material. The potential for using porous materials to simulate human perspiration was investigated in this work using different permanently saturated porous materials (plaster, white clay and red clay). The existence and duration of a constant drying rate was studied, as well its dependency on the surrounding conditions, namely temperature, moisture and velocity. We verified the existence of a period with constant drying rate for all the tested samples; this is evidence that a uniformly distributed humid layer is formed and stays on the external surface of the porous body. This represents a step forward in simulation of the sweating mechanism. All three tested porous materials showed very good reproducibility and good sensitivity in terms of the response of the evaporation rate to any variation of the relative humidity.
Previous work in our laboratory and others have demonstrated that spoof fingers made of a variety of materials including silicon, Play-Doh, clay, and gelatin (gummy finger) can be scanned and verified when compared to a live enrolled finger. Liveness, i.e. to determine whether the introduced biometric is coming from a live source, has been suggested as a means to circumvent attacks using spoof fingers. We developed a new liveness method based on perspiration changes in the fingerprint image. Recent results showed approximately 90% classification rate using different classification methods for various technologies including optical, electro-optical, and capacitive DC, a shorter time window and a diverse dataset. This paper focuses on improvement of the live classification rate by using a weight decay method during the training phase in order to improve the generalization and reduce the variance of the neural network based classifier. The dataset included fingerprint images from 33 live subjects, 33 spoofs created with dental impression material and Play-Doh, and fourteen cadaver fingers. 100% live classification was achieved with 81.8 to 100% spoof classification, depending on the device technology. The weight-decay method improves upon past reports by increasing the live and spoof classification rate.
Background: Sensitive and real-time methods are required to characterize the symptoms and resolve the complicated pathology of hypohidrosis. Method: We constructed a conductometric humidity sensor and a stopped-flow manifold with suitable dynamic range for monitoring impaired perspiration. The mini-sensor was coated with a water-absorbing polymer of poly-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonate). Results: Perspiration from palms of normal individuals and hypohidrosis patients were monitored and compared. Tangent slopes of the sensorograms were capable of discriminating hypohidrosis patients from normal individuals. Conclusion: The conductometric min-sensor and the stopped-flow manifold were proven to be useful as a diagnostic tool for hypohidrosis.
Prodromal signs such as cardiac rhythm disturbance and changes in gastric motility are generally induced before and during nausea in humans. These autonomic reactions were compared in subjects who were or were not experiencing nausea. Nausea was induced by having the subjects view a movie of oscillating pictures. Seventeen healthy volunteers were asked to relax their muscles and watch the movie. Electrogastrogram (EGG), electrocardiogram (ECG), palmar and metopic perspiration, digital blood flow and thoracic movement related to respiration were simultaneously measured while the subjects viewed the movie. A total of 11 of 17 subjects complained of nausea after watching the movie. The characteristic changes in their autonomic responses during exposure to the movie were as follows. The power of the EGG, heart rate and metopic perspiration significantly increased compared to those before watching the movie. The respiratory cycle gradually increased during and even after watching the movie. In contrast, no significant changes in the power of the EGG, heart rate and metopic perspiration were observed in the remaining six subjects who did not experience nausea. The role of the autonomic nervous system in nausea is discussed. These results suggest that these symptoms regarding the sympathetic nervous system could actually be defensive reactions against the sensation of nausea.
The study had as its aim to characterize the children under 5 years old, attended with exogenous poisoning by carbamate (popularly called “chumbinho” – “small shot”) at an emergency hospital in Fortaleza and to relate the signs and symptoms detected in this type of poisoning. It concerned a descriptive study, with a sample of 65 children attended during the period of 1998 to 2000, in Fortaleza, Ceará. It was noticed that the most affected age group was of those with 1 to 3 years old, not being verified any significant difference between sexes. The most evident signs and symptoms were myosis, vomits, profuse perspiration and sialorrhea and the predominant treatment was the use of active coal. It is concluded, therefore, that there is a need of putting into effect the health education, calling the society’s attention to the risks of the inadequate “chumbinho” use in the domiciliar environment.
The typical symptoms of coronary heart disease (CHD), chest pain and breathlessness, are well-known. They are considered quite dramatic, and can thus be fairly reliably mapped by a survey. However, people might have other clearly unpleasant symptoms impairing quality of life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the appearance of these complaints of working-aged people with self-reported CHD. The study consists of a postal questionnaire of randomly selected Finns in age groups 30-34, 40-44 and 50-54, a response rate of 39% (N = 15,477). The subjects were asked whether or not a doctor had told them that they had angina pectoris or had had myocardial infarction. Four randomly selected age and sex matched controls were chosen for every patient. The occurrence of self-reported dyspnoea, chest pain during anger or other kind of emotion, palpitation and perspiration without physical exercise, irregular heartbeats, flushing, trembling of hands and voice, jerking of muscles, depression and day-time sleepiness were examined. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), between occurrence of symptoms and CHD with and without heart infarction, were computed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The sample eventually comprised 319 CHD patients. Dyspnoea, chest pain during anger or other kind of emotion, palpitation, perspiration without physical exercise, irregular heartbeats daily or almost daily, trembling of hands and voice, and jerking of muscles occurred statistically significantly more frequently among CHD patients than among controls. The CHD patients also reported more depressive mood according to Beck's inventory scores and poorer sleep and more frequent day-time sleepiness than controls. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis chest pain during anger or other kind of emotion (ORs 4.12 and 3.61) and dyspnoea (ORs 2.33 and 3.81) were the symptoms most associated with CHD. Working-aged people with self-reported coronary heart disease evince a number of symptoms limiting the quality of their every day life. This aspect should be paid attention to when evaluating functional capacity of these patients.