The ability to detect cocaine use/exposure by either hair or sweat analysis was compared in a random population of adults at a major US university. Sweat was obtained by wiping the forehead with a cosmetic puff containing isopropanol. Using cut-off levels for sweat of 2.2 ng cocaine/wipe and of hair of 0.05 ng cocaine/mg hair, sweat detected two times more cocaine use/exposure than did hair. Sweat analysis detected a use rate of 12% compared to a 6% rate by hair analysis, both greater than the 2% that would be expected in this population. The high rate of detection was surprising and suggests that use of, if not exposure to, cocaine is underreported. Controlled experiments showed that cocaine could remain on the skin for about 3 days after external exposure. At the current state of knowledge, sweat appears to measure both use and exposure. Nevertheless, sweat testing could be used in several scenarios (such as roadside driving while intoxicated) where the ease of collection and testing of sweat could outweigh the passive exposure considerations. Cocaine concentrations in skin swabs > 15ng/swab would appear to indicate recent use/exposure.
A system for observing the active sweat glands on the thumb, and measuring of perspiration volume is proposed. The system is composed of a microscope with a CCD unit housed inside; stages for finding focused position; a VCR; a CRT; a sweat detecting probe; and a continuous local perspiration volume recorder. The areas covered by the focusing and by the detecting probe are 7 mm 2 and 1 cm 2 , respectively. Maps of the sweat glands are prepared, and their activities are examined by monitoring and by using video tapes. The number of active sweat glands correlates with the amount of sweating; however the activity of sweat glands is found to be asynchronous. Individual glands' sweat secretion are graphed using timing charts. The sweat glands can be divided into three groups, namely, 1) very active, 2) only active under a strong impulse and 3) inactive. The present system may be useful for studying disorders and their therapies.
The clothing industry is bringing the benefits of industrialization to Honduras but also its woes. Admirers trumpet the industry's massive job creation and point to the push it gives other industries. Detractors see other things: the sweatshop conditions for workers and the indifference of the Honduran authorities to their plight.
The accumulation of sweat inside a full-facepiece respirator mask and the rise in facial skin temperature can be important factors for acceptability of respirators worn in the heat. This study questioned how much sweat would have to be removed from a respirator (if a design to remove accumulated sweat were possible). Results from 20 subjects sitting in a warm, humid environment (35°C and 90% relative humidity) for 90 minutes indicated that the average value was about 0.203 g sweat/min from the face, head, and neck, with most of that coming from the neck region. Men were found to have higher sweating rates than women. The results indicate that a large amount of sweat could accumulate inside the mask over a typical 8-hour day. Average facial skin temperature was found to rise about 2°C over the 90-minute test, and this rise could likely be the cause of the very uncomfortable rating given to the respirator.
PURPOSE: This study was designed to describe the frequency and severity of colorectal problems among patients with spinal cord lesions and to determine whether these problems are associated with age, gender, time since the lesion, and level and severity of the lesion. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A detailed questionnaire describing colorectal and bladder function was sent to all 589 members of The Danish Paraplegic Association; 424 responded (72 percent). RESULTS: Only 19 percent felt a normal desire to defecate, whereas the remaining patients felt no desire to defecate (38 percent) or a combination of abdominal discomfort (37 percent) and headache, physical uneasiness, and perspiration (25 percent). Digital stimulation of the anal canal before defecation or digital evacuation of the rectum was used regularly by 65 percent of patients. Fecal incontinence was experienced by 75 percent of patients; however, most patients only had a few episodes of fecal incontinence each month (15 percent) or each year (56 percent). Overall, 39 percent of patients reported that colorectal dysfunction caused some or major restrictions on social activities or on their quality of life, and 30 percent regarded colorectal complaints to be worse than both bladder and sexual dysfunction. The severity of most symptoms was significantly correlated with the severity of the lesion, and the self-reported impact on social activities or quality of life was significantly more severe among women than men. CONCLUSION: Colorectal dysfunction is very common among spinal cord-injured patients, often causing restriction on social activities and quality of life. Therefore, these problems deserve more attention in the treatment of spinal cord-injured patients.
Energy requirements during space flight are poorly defined because they depend on metabolic-balance studies, food disappearance, and dietary records. Water turnover has been estimated by balance methods only. The purpose of this study was to determine energy requirements and water turnover for short-term space flights (8-14 d). Subjects were 13 male astronauts aged 36-51 y with normal body mass indexes (BMIs). Total energy expenditure (TEE) was determined during both a ground-based period and space flight and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) calculations of energy requirements and dietary intake. TEE was not different for the ground-based and the space-flight periods (12.40 +/- 2.83 and 11.70 +/- 1.89 MJ/d, respectively), and the WHO calculation using the moderate activity correction was a good predictor of TEE during space flight. During the ground-based period, energy intake and TEE did not differ, but during space flight energy intake was significantly lower than TEE; body weight was also less at landing than before flight, Water turnover was lower during space flight than during the ground-based period (2.7 +/- 0.6 compared with 3.8 +/- 0.5 L/d), probably because of lower fluid intakes and perspiration loss during flight. This study confirmed that the WHO calculation can be used for male crew members' energy requirements during short space flights.