Different brands of vaginal tampons varied significantly (p less than 0.0001) in their anti-bacterial effects when tested with 46 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal strains recovered from patients with disseminated infections were substantially more sensitive to the anti-bacterial effects of tampons than were strains from patients with uncomplicated genital infections. Strains from patients with pelvic inflammatory disease were moderately sensitive. Tampons showing strong in-vitro antigonococcal effects were also generally effective in vivo in eliminating gonococcal infections from subcutaneous chambers in mice. Extracts of the Rely tampon showed no in-vitro antigonococcal effect, however, but did induce antibacterial activity when injected into subcutaneous chambers in mice. These results emphasise the importance of both in-vitro as well as in-vivo testing of tampon materials to elucidate more fully the nature of their antibacterial effects and their potential for affecting vaginal pathogens and disease processes.,OBJECTIVES To investigate right ventricular diastolic function in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and its relation to clinical features of the disease. METHODS Seventy seven unselected SSc patients and 33 healthy subjects were submitted to echocardiography and echo Doppler study to assess left and right systolic as well diastolic function and to estimate maximal arterial systolic pulmonary pressure (PAP). In addition, the patients were investigated to define the SSc subset and the extent of skin and internal organ involvement. RESULTS An abnormal right ventricular filling, as expressed by an inverted tricuspidal (Tr) E/A ratio (Tr E/A ratio 30 mm Hg. Twenty resulted to have an inverted mitral (Mit) E/A ratio (Mit E/A ratio <1), indicating an abnormal left ventricular filling. In multiple regression analysis, Tr E/A ratio resulted to be independently correlated to both PAP (r= −0.35;p<0.003) and Mit E/A ratio (r=0.39;p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS This study points out an impaired right ventricular filling in a significant percentage of SSc patients whatever the subset. This alteration is independently correlated to both PAP and left ventricular filling abnormalities.,This paper describes the investigation by a British local government board inspector in 1902, H Timbrell Bulstrode, into the cause of an outbreak of enteric fever after a mayoral banquet given at Winchester. This investigation helped to confirm the role of oysters as an agent of transmission of typhoid fever. The data are also reanalysed using a modern approach, which confirmed the role of oysters (odds ratio = 11.2, 95% CI 2.5 to 50.1). This episode is illustrative of the role of British public health inspectors at the turn of the 20th century as well as of the conditions in which the technique of investigating outbreaks of food borne diseases using a standardised menu was developed. Current methods of outbreak investigations that differ from Bulstrode’s pioneering work are also discussed.
Two hundred and twenty-five consecutive patients with interventricular septal defect and associated pulmonary hypertension have undergone corrective surgery at the Christian Medical College Hospital. The mean preoperative systolic pulmonary artery pressure was 70.5 (range 31-136) mm Hg and the calculated pulmonary vascular resistance ranged from 300 to 1680 dyn/s cm-5. A paracoronary right ventriculotomy was the approach of choice. Profound hypothermia and circulatory arrest were not used, even in 12 patients weighing under 10 kg. Among the older children and young adolescents there were 27 who had a calculated pulmonary vascular resistance of over 800 dyn/s cm-1 and their mortality was 22%, which is good when compared with that of other series. It is evident that both the early and the late death rate after surgery increase with the age of the patient, especially in those with associated pulmonary hypertension. In 69 patients studied after repair recatheterisation showed no residual defect by oximetry. The fall in the pulmonary artery pressures after surgery has been striking in most patients. The late death rate was 2.5%. The surviving patients are leading normal, active lives.
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn is a syndrome consisting of severe hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension that appears within hours of birth. Since certain leukotrienes (C 4 , D 4 , and E 4 ) are known to produce some of the features of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, including pulmonary vasoconstriction, bronchoconstriction, decreased lung compliance, and pulmonary edema, we studied five newborns with the syndrome to determine whether these leukotrienes were present in their airways. We found leukotriene C 4 and leukotriene D 4 in the lung lavage fluids of all five newborns who had the clinical diagnosis of persistent pulmonary hypertension and who required ventilatory assistance. In contrast, leukotrienes were not demonstrated in a control group of 14 infants requiring ventilatory assistance who did not have the clinical diagnosis of persistent pulmonary hypertension. We conclude that leukotrienes may have a role in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. (N Engl J Med 1983; 309:77–80.) A SYNDROME of severe hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension develops in some infants within minutes or hours after birth. In addition, some of these infants have increased airway resistance, decreased lung compliance, and infiltrates that are consistent with pulmonary edema. 1 2 3 4 The syndrome has been called persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn or persistent fetal circulation. 5 , 6 Certain leukotrienes (C 4 , D 4 , and E 4 ) — products of a lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid 7 that were previously known as the slow-reacting substances of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) 8 — can cause pulmonary vasoconstriction, 9 , 10 bronchoconstriction, 11 , 12 decreased lung compliance, 13 and edema. 14 Therefore, we wondered . . .
A case of late stage cutaneous leishmaniasis with focal caseous necrosis is reported. The patient, a 30 year old Tunisian man, presented with idiopathic bone marrow aplasia. Microscopically, minimal changes were observed in the epidermis: slight hyperkeratosis and moderate acanthosis. Lesions predominated in the dermis. Epithelioid granulomas were found in the lower dermis. Some of these lesions were clearly surrounded by a ring of lymphocytes and were rarely confluent. A peculiar histological feature was the presence of focal acidophilic and slightly granular necrosis at the centre of some the tuberculoid lesions. Focal fibrinoid necrosis was found in the upper dermis, outside granulomas. A mild to moderate infiltrate of histiocytes, lymphocytes and plasma cells, with scanty neutrophils, was observed mainly in the upper dermis. No intracellular or extracellular Leishman-Donovan bodies were observed. Acid fast mycobacteria, however, were not detected. Leishmaniasis was diagnosed on culture of skin biopsy specimens. The presence of caseous necrosis could lead to diagnostic confusion and result in an erroneous diagnosis of, for example, tuberculosis, syphilis, acne agminata, and sarcoidosis with fibrinoid necrosis. This is especially the case when parasites are scanty or absent.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To produce a priority list for purchasers to use when purchasing elective care in the speciality of orthopaedics so that efficiency in health care purchasing (that is, maximising the benefit per unit of resource available for the resident population) can be achieved. DESIGN: The study used cost utility analysis in the elective speciality of orthopaedics. The diagnostic groups in the study were chosen on the basis of those conditions that constituted the greatest proportion of the orthopaedic waiting list, and consequently the greatest proportion of activity within the speciality. Costs were derived by two methods: the extra contractual referral tariff (ECR) and individual patient based costings. Outcome was assessed before surgery and again approximately six months afterwards. The outcome of the procedures was derived in two ways: Rosser and EuroQol indices. SETTING: The study took place at Wrightington hospital, a specialist orthopaedic hospital in north west England. PATIENTS: Prospective assessments were obtained from 99 patients for nine orthopaedics procedures. All the patients were individually interviewed on each occasion. Rosser and EuroQol assessments were completed for each patient by the patient and the patient's consultant before and after surgery. MAIN RESULTS: Priority lists presenting cost utility rankings for each of the procedures were derived from the patients' and consultants' assessments. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to generate priority lists in a systematic way. Purchasers may then use the results from these priority lists to help them maximise the benefits per unit of resource for their resident population.
OBJECTIVETo test in patients with a history of myocardial infarction or stroke the feasibility of four quality of life measurementsthe Nottingham health profile (NHP), the heart patients psychological questionnaire (HPPQ), the sickness impact profile (SIP), and the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD). DESIGNSubjects were tested and retested after an interval of 14 days: questionnaires were self assessed. SUBJECTSParticipants were randomly selected from the Rotterdam stroke data bank (stroke patients; n = 16, mean (SD) age 66.0 (11.0) years and from the population based Rotterdam study (myocardial infarction; n = 20, mean (SD) age 72.7 (7.9) years, controls; n = 17, mean (SD) age 72.8 (7.3) years. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTSMean (SD) administration times for the NHP, HPPQ, SIP, and HAD were 7.9 (3.5), 10.5 (4.3), 21.0 (9.8), and 5.5 (2.8) minutes respectively. On average, the test-retest reliability was good, with Spearman correlations ranging from 0.31 to 0.95. In spite of the limited size of the study, all instruments were able to show differences between the study groups. For instance, median SIP total scores for myocardial infarction and stroke patients were 12.4 (interquartile range 7.0-19.1) and 11.4 (5.9-15.4) respectively, compared with 7.7 (3.7-11.3) in the control group (p values of 0.04 and 0.14 respectively). CONCLUSIONSThis study suggests that use of the four instruments tested may be feasible and reliable for assessing aspects of quality of life in patients with a history of a myocardial infarction or stroke.