Abstract Pulmonary hypertension is a common hemodynamic complication of heart failure. Interest in left-sided pulmonary hypertension has increased remarkably in recent years because its development and consequences for the right heart are now seen as mainstay abnormalities that begin in the early stages of the disease and bear unfavorable prognostic insights. However, some knowledge gaps limit our ability to influence this complex condition. Accordingly, attention is now focused on: 1) establishing a definitive consensus for a hemodynamic definition, perhaps incorporating exercise and fluid challenge; 2) implementing the limited data available on the pathobiology of lung capillaries and small arteries; 3) developing standard methods for assessing right ventricular function and, hopefully, its coupling to pulmonary circulation; and 4) searching for effective therapies that may benefit lung vessels and the remodeled right ventricle. The authors review the pathophysiology, pathobiology, and emerging clinical perspectives on pulmonary hypertension across the broad spectrum of heart failure stages.
Optimal right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary hypertension (PH) requires structural and functional coupling between the RV cardiomyocyte and its adjacent capillary network. Prior investigations have indicated that RV vascular rarefaction occurs in PH, which could contribute to RV failure by reduced delivery of oxygen or other metabolic substrates. However, it has not been determined if rarefaction results from relative underproliferation in the setting of tissue hypertrophy or from actual loss of vessels. It is also unknown if rarefaction results in inadequate substrate delivery to the RV tissue. In the present study, PH was induced in rats by SU5416-hypoxia-normoxia exposure. The vasculature in the RV free wall was assessed using stereology. Steady-state metabolomics of the RV tissue was performed by mass spectrometry. Complementary studies were performed in hypoxia-exposed mice and rats. Rats with severe PH had evidence of RV failure by decreased cardiac output and systemic hypotension. By stereology, there was significant RV hypertrophy and increased total vascular length in the RV free wall in close proportion, with evidence of vessel proliferation but no evidence of endothelial cell apoptosis. There was a modest increase in the radius of tissue served per vessel, with decreased arterial delivery of metabolic substrates. Metabolomics revealed major metabolic alterations and metabolic reprogramming; however, metabolic substrate delivery was functionally preserved, without evidence of either tissue hypoxia or depletion of key metabolic substrates. Hypoxia-treated rats and mice had similar but milder alterations. There is significant homeostatic vascular adaptation in the right ventricle of rodents with PH.
Pulmonary hypertension is a common hemodynamic complication of heart failure. Interest in left-sided pulmonary hypertension has increased remarkably in recent years because its development and consequences for the right heart are now seen as mainstay abnormalities that begin in the early stages of the disease and bear unfavorable prognostic insights. However, some knowledge gaps limit our ability to influence this complex condition. Accordingly, attention is now focused on: 1) establishing a definitive consensus for a hemodynamic definition, perhaps incorporating exercise and fluid challenge; 2) implementing the limited data available on the pathobiology of lung capillaries and small arteries; 3) developing standard methods for assessing right ventricular function and, hopefully, its coupling to pulmonary circulation; and 4) searching for effective therapies that may benefit lung vessels and the remodeled right ventricle. The authors review the pathophysiology, pathobiology, and emerging clinical perspectives on pulmonary hypertension across the broad spectrum of heart failure stages. (C) 2017 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
Aims This study investigates whether increased right ventricular (RV) pressure in pulmonary hypertension (PH) impairs right coronary artery (RCA) flow and RV perfusion. Methods In 25 subjects, five patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, nine patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and 11 healthy controls, flow of the RCA and left anterior descending (LAD) artery was measured with MR flow quantification. Results In PH, RCA peak systolic and mean systolic flow were lower, 1.02 ± 0.62 mL/s and 0.42 ± 0.30 mL/s, than peak and mean diastolic flow, 2.99 ± 1.97 mL/s (P < 0.001) and 1.73 ± 0.97 mL/s (P < 0.001); a pattern similar to the LAD. In contrast, in controls, RCA peak and mean flow in systole, 1.63 ± 0.58 mL/s and 0.72 ± 0.23 mL/s, were comparable to peak and mean flow in diastole, 1.72 ± 0.48 mL/s and 0.93 ± 0.28 mL/s (NS). The systolic-to-diastolic flow ratio in the RCA, and mean flow per gram RV tissue, were inversely related to RV mass, R = −0.61 (P = 0.009), and R = −0.73 (P < 0.001) and to RV pressure, R = −0.83 (P < 0.001), and R = −0.57 (P = 0.033). Conclusion Although in controls, RCA flow is similar in systole and diastole, in PH there is systolic flow impediment, which is proportional to RV pressure and mass. In patients with severe RV hypertrophy total mean flow is reduced.
Pulmonary hypertension represents a group of conditions characterized by higher than normal pulmonary artery pressures. Despite improved treatments, outcomes in many instances remain poor. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) in patients with pulmonary hypertension. This technique offers certain advantages over other imaging modalities since it is well suited to the assessment of the right ventricle and the proximal pulmonary arteries. Reflecting the relatively sparse evidence supporting its use, CMR is not routinely recommended for patients with pulmonary hypertension. However, it is particularly useful in patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease. Furthermore, it has proven informative in a number of ways; illustrating how right ventricular remodeling is favorably reversed by drug therapies and providing explicit confirmation of the importance of the right ventricle to clinical outcome. This review will discuss these aspects and practical considerations before speculating on future applications.
Dysregulation of vascular stiffness and cellular metabolism occurs early in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the mechanisms by which biophysical properties of the vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) relate to metabolic processes important in PH remain undefined. In this work, we examined cultured pulmonary vascular cells and various types of PH diseased lung tissue and determined that ECM stiffening resulted in mechanoactivation of the transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ (WWTR1). YAP/TAZ activation modulated metabolic enzymes, including glutaminase (GLS1), to coordinate glutaminolysis and glycolysis. Glutaminolysis, an anaplerotic pathway, replenished aspartate for anabolic biosynthesis, which was critical for sustaining proliferation and migration within stiff ECM. In vitro, GLS1 inhibition blocked aspartate production and reprogrammed cellular proliferation pathways, while application of aspartate restored proliferation. In the monocrotaline rat model of PH, pharmacologic modulation of pulmonary vascular stiffness and YAP-dependent mechanotransduction altered glutaminolysis, pulmonary vascular proliferation, and manifestations of PH. Additionally, pharmacologic targeting of GLS1 in this model ameliorated disease progression. Notably, evaluation of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected nonhuman primates and HIV-infected subjects revealed a correlation between YAP/TAZ-GLS activation and PH. These results indicate that ECM stiffening sustains vascular cell growth and migration through YAP/TAZ-dependent glutaminolysis and anaplerosis, and thereby link mechanical stimuli to dysregulated vascular metabolism. Furthermore, this study identifies potential metabolic drug targets for therapeutic development in PH.
Abstract BACKGROUND The shift of metabolism from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and mitochondria binding partner of hexokinase are features common to cancer. These have been seen in pulmonary hypertension (PH) as well. An inhibitor of hexokinase 2 (HK 2), the small molecule 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is an incredibly powerful and swift-acting anticancer agent. However, whether it could be of potential benefit to PH has still been unknown. METHODS Sprague–Dawley rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH were administered 2 oral doses of 3-BrPA (15 and 30 mg/kg/day, respectively) for 14 days. Hemodynamic parameters were obtained by right heart catheterization. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and assessments of relative protein expressions were conducted. RESULTS Compared with MCT treatment, 3-BrPA decreased mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, and increased cardiac output. 3-BrPA significantly suppressed proliferation in addition to enhancing apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, attenuating small pulmonary artery remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy. Treatment with 3-BrPA markedly reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and restored mitochondrial structure. Furthermore, 3-BrPA significantly inhibited HK 2 expression but not HK 1. The expression of both pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and lactate dehydrogenase was decreased whereas that of pyruvate dehydrogenase and cytosolic cytochrome c was upregulated with 3-BrPA administration. CONCLUSION This study demonstrates the reversal of PH by 3-BrPA is related to alteration in glycolysis and improved mitochondria function, indicating the “metabolic targeting” as a rational therapeutic strategy for PH.
Exercise limitation comes from a close interaction between cardiovascular and skeletal muscle impairments. To better understand the implication of possible peripheral oxidative metabolism dysfunction, we studied the proteomic signature of skeletal muscle in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Eight idiopathic PAH patients and eight matched healthy sedentary subjects were evaluated for exercise capacity, skeletal muscle proteomic profile, metabolism, and mitochondrial function. Skeletal muscle proteins were extracted, and fractioned peptides were tagged using an iTRAQ protocol. Proteomic analyses have documented a total of 9 downregulated proteins in PAH skeletal muscles and 10 upregulated proteins compared to healthy subjects. Most of the downregulated proteins were related to mitochondrial structure and function. Focusing on skeletal muscle metabolism and mitochondrial health, PAH patients presented a decreased expression of oxidative enzymes (pyruvate dehydrogenase, p < 0.01) and an increased expression of glycolytic enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase activity, p < 0.05). These findings were supported by abnormal mitochondrial morphology on electronic microscopy, lower citrate synthase activity (p < 0.01) and lower expression of the transcription factor A of the mitochondria (p < 0.05), confirming a more glycolytic metabolism in PAH skeletal muscles. We provide evidences that impaired mitochondrial and metabolic functions found in the lungs and the right ventricle are also present in skeletal muscles of patients.• Proteomic and metabolic analysis show abnormal oxidative metabolism in PAH skeletal muscle.• EM of PAH patients reveals abnormal mitochondrial structure and distribution.• Abnormal mitochondrial health and function contribute to exercise impairments of PAH.• PAH may be considered a vascular affliction of heart and lungs with major impact on peripheral muscles.
Right ventricular function has long been neglected by heart failure specialists. We have now learnt that it is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in all patients with heart failure, regardless of the degree of left ventricular dysfunction. Importantly, right ventricular function is tightly linked with pulmonary hypertension, and only a thorough understanding of how the right ventricle couples with the pulmonary circulation can provide an improved knowledge of the pathophysiology and possibly a more efficient treatment and a better prognosis in patients with heart failure.