The present work describes the first example of real-time noninvasive lactate sensing in human perspiration during exercise events using a flexible printed temporary-transfer tattoo electrochemical biosensor that conforms to the wearer’s skin. The new skin-worn enzymatic biosensor exhibits chemical selectivity toward lactate with linearity up to 20 mM and demonstrates resiliency against continuous mechanical deformation expected from epidermal wear. The device was applied successfully to human subjects for real-time continuous monitoring of sweat lactate dynamics during prolonged cycling exercise. The resulting temporal lactate profiles reflect changes in the production of sweat lactate upon varying the exercise intensity. Such skin-worn metabolite biosensors could lead to useful insights into physical performance and overall physiological status, hence offering considerable promise for diverse sport, military, and biomedical applications.
Here we present two types of all-printable, highly stretchable, and inexpensive devices based on platinum (Pt)-decorated graphite for glucose determination in physiological fluids. Said devices are: a non-enzymatic sensor and an enzymatic biosensor, the latter showing promising results. Glucose has been quantified by measuring hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reduction by chronoamperometry at −0.35V (vs pseudo-Ag/AgCl) using glucose oxidase immobilized on Pt-decorated graphite. The sensor performs well for the quantification of glucose in phosphate buffer solution (0.25M PBS, pH 7.0), with a linear range between 0 mM and 0.9mM, high sensitivity and selectivity, and a low limit of detection (LOD). Thus, it provides an alternative non-invasive and on-body quantification of glucose levels in human perspiration. This biosensor has been successfully applied on real human perspiration samples and results also show a significant correlation between glucose concentration in perspiration and glucose concentration in blood measured by a commercial glucose meter. •Stretchable electrochemical biosensors for glucose determination in perspiration.•The obtained working range and sensitivity are 33μM–0.9mM and 105μAcm−2mM−1, respectively.•An alternative for the non-invasive quantification of glucose in human perspiration.•Real human perspiration were used to evaluate the inter-sensor reproducibility and trueness.
Background Some methodologies used for evaluating sweat production and antiperspirants are of a stationary aspect, that is, most often performed under warm (38°C) but resting conditions in a rather short period of time. The aim is to develop an electronic sensor apt at continuously recording sweat excretion, in vivo, during physical exercises, exposure to differently heated environments, or any other stimuli that may provoke sweat excretion. Material and Methods A sensor (20 cm2) is wrapped under a double‐layered textile pad. Fixed onto the armpits, these two arrays of electrodes are connected to electronic system through an analog multiplexer. A microcontroller is used to permanently record changes in the conductance between two electrodes during exposure of subjects to different sweat‐inducing conditions or to assess the efficacy of applied aluminum hydrochloride (ACH)‐based roll‐ons at two concentrations (5% and 15%). Results In vitro calibration, using a NaCl 0.5% solution, allows changes in mV to be related with progressively increased volumes. In vivo, results show that casual physical exercise leads to sweat excretions much higher than in warm environment (37 or 45°C). Only, an exposure to a 50°C environment induced comparable sweat excretion. In this condition, sweat excretions were found similar in both armpits and both genders. Decreased sweat excretions were recorded following applications of ACH, with a dose effect. Conclusion Developing phases of this new approach indicate that usual method or guidelines used to determine sweat excretions in vivo do not reflect true energy expenditure processes. As a consequence, they probably over‐estimate the efficacy of antiperspirant agents or formulae.
Abstract Sweating measurement is a very useful tool for the physiological health state of the human body. A sweating measuring system developed in this study was composed of several sensors. All sensors were calibrated to ensure the accuracy. Three pretreatment physiological states for test subjects before sweating measurement included sit and rest for 5 min, walking for 5 min, and running for 5 min. The whole sweating value was measured and calculated over 5-min periods. The results of sweating measurement indicated the usefulness of this device. The sweating quantity of three states did not have a significant relationship with the height, weight and body mass index (BMI) values of subjects. The first sweating index is the difference between active treatment and sitting state. The second sweating index is the ratio between active state and sitting. The relationship between two sweating index and BMI values could be found. This device could serve as a detecting tool to establish the sweating database for normal conditions and to be used for diagnosis.
This review gives an overview of focal plane array (FPA)-based infrared (IR) thermography as a powerful research method in the field of physiology and medicine. Comparison of the gained results with the data previously obtained by other authors with other research tools is given. Outer thermoregulatory manifestations displayed by the human organism subjected to whole-body heating (sauna bath) and physical loads (exercise bicycling) are quantitatively analysed. Some details of human body emotional sweating (psychophysiological effect) are reported. Particular attention is paid to studying active sweat glands as individual objects. All experimental data were obtained with the help of a high-sensitivity (0.03 degrees C) fast 128 x 128 InAs IR detector-based thermal imaging system operating in the short-wave spectral region (2.5 to 3 mu m) and perfectly suiting medical purposes. It is shown that IR thermography makes it possible to overcome limitations inherent to contact measuring means that were traditionally used before in thermal studies. It is also shown that heterogeneous thermograms displayed by organisms with disturbed inner equilibrium can be quantitatively analysed in terms of statistical parameters of related surface-temperature histograms, such as the mean temperature and the standard deviation of temperature (SDT). The increase and the decrease in SDT turned out to be typical of prolonged physical load and subsequent relaxation, and of external whole-body heating, respectively. Explanation of this result based on a hypothesis advanced within the context of the doctrine of human-organism evolution is given. Skin-temperature distribution function accompanying the relaxed organism in normality was found to closely resemble normal-distribution function. Symmetry break down and variation of the shape of this characteristic may serve as an indicator of homeostasis shift and can be used as a quantitative criterion for the latter. A new phenomenon, stable punctate hidrosis, is discovered and described. The term sweatology is introduced to refer to the discussed specific research area in biomedical science.
Ethanol intake is associated with a variety of skin diseases. The aim of the present study was (1) to identify the pathways of release of orally administered ethanol through the skin, and (2) to investigate the effects of a single oral dose of ethanol on the penetration of topically applied substances into the skin. Ethanol evaporation via the skin was measured using the new technique of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin surface temperature were simultaneously measured before and after ethanol consumption. Measurements were performed on skin sites with different stratum corneum (SC) thickness, and density of follicles and sweat glands. These appendages were selectively sealed to investigate their participation in ethanol evaporation. The penetration of a topically applied UV filter substance was studied before and after ethanol consumption after removing the SC with adhesive tape. Ethanol evaporation was measured within 5 min of consumption, while the skin surface temperature remained nearly constant. The sealing of the appendages did not have a significant effect on ethanol evaporation. On the forehead, a higher TEWL value was measured than on the forearm. On both skin sites, an increase in TEWL was observed after ethanol ingestion. No influence of orally administered ethanol on the penetration of the topically applied UV filter substance was observed. The results indicate that ethanol evaporation occurs via the lipid layers without a significant effect on the penetration of the topically applied substance.
Wearable sensor technologies are essential to the realization of personalized medicine through continuously monitoring an individual's state of health(1-12). Sampling human sweat, which is rich in physiological information(13), could enable non-invasive monitoring. Previously reported sweat-based and other non-invasive biosensors either can only monitor a single analyte at a time or lack on-site signal processing circuitry and sensor calibration mechanisms for accurate analysis of the physiological state(14-18). Given the complexity of sweat secretion, simultaneous and multiplexed screening of target biomarkers is critical and requires full system integration to ensure the accuracy of measurements. Here we present a mechanically flexible and fully integrated (that is, no external analysis is needed) sensor array for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis, which simultaneously and selectively measures sweat metabolites (such as glucose and lactate) and electrolytes (such as sodium and potassium ions), as well as the skin temperature (to calibrate the response of the sensors). Our work bridges the technological gap between signal transduction, conditioning (amplification and filtering), processing and wireless transmission in wearable biosensors by merging plastic-based sensors that interface with the skin with silicon integrated circuits consolidated on a flexible circuit board for complex signal processing. This application could not have been realized using either of these technologies alone owing to their respective inherent limitations. The wearable system is used to measure the detailed sweat profile of human subjects engaged in prolonged indoor and outdoor physical activities, and to make a real-time assessment of the physiological state of the subjects. This platform enables a wide range of personalized diagnostic and physiological monitoring applications.
Commonly used as flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely detected in the environment, animals, and humans. Although these persistent organic pollutants are increasingly recognized as having serious health implications, particularly for children, this is the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate an intervention for human elimination of bioaccumulated PBDEs. Objectives. To determine the efficacy of blood, urine, and perspiration as PBDE biomonitoring mediums; assess excretion of five common PBDE congeners (28, 47, 99, 100, and 153) in urine and perspiration; and explore the potential of induced sweating for decreasing bioaccumulated PBDEs. Results. PBDE congeners were not found in urine samples; findings focus on blood and perspiration. 80% of participants tested positive in one or more body fluids for PBDE 28, 100% for PBDE 47, 95% for PBDE 99, and 90% for PBDE 100 and PBDE 153. Induced perspiration facilitated excretion of the five congeners, with different rates of excretion for different congeners. Conclusion. Blood testing provides only a partial understanding of human PBDE bioaccumulation; testing of both blood and perspiration provides a better understanding. This study provides important baseline evidence for regular induced perspiration as a potential means for therapeutic PBDE elimination. Fetotoxic and reproductive effects of PBDE exposure highlight the importance of further detoxification research.
Individual perspiration level indicates a person's physical status as well as their comfort level. Therefore, continuous perspiration level measurement enables people to monitor these conditions for applications including fitness assessment, athlete physical status monitoring, and patient/elderly care. Prior work on perspiration (sweat) sensing required the user either to be static or to wear the adhesive sensor directly on the skin, which limits users' mobility and comfort. In this paper, we present a novel conductive thread-based textile sensor that measures an individual's on-cloth sweat quantity. The sensor consists of three conductive threads. Each conductive thread is surrounded by a braided cotton cover. An additional braided cotton cover is placed outside the three conductive threads, holding them in a position that is stable for measurement. the sensor can be embedded at various locations on a person's clothing. When the person sweats, the cotton braids absorb the sweat and change the conductivity (resistance) between conductive threads. We used a voltage dividing circuit to measure this resistance as the sensor output (DC). We then conducted a sensor calibration to map this measured voltage to the quantity of electrolyte solution (with the same density as sweat) applied to the sensor. We used this sensor to measure individuals' perspiration quantity and infer their perceived perspiration levels. The system is able to limit the average prediction error to 0.4 levels when compared to five pre-defined perceived perspiration levels.
The composition of human sweat-and as a consequence the composition of volatiles released from human skin-strongly depends on genetic preconditions, diet, stress, personal hygiene but also on health status and medication. Accordingly, the composition is a carrier of information on the physical and mental states of a person. Therefore, rapid on-site analysis of the relevant substances may be used for medical diagnosis and medication control or even for psychological characterisation. Ion mobility spectrometry coupled to rapid gas chromatography (GC-IMS) was applied to the analysis of human axillary sweat as a sensitive, selective, rapid, and non-invasive method in a feasibility study. For this purpose, a sampling chamber was designed and manufactured. The design and the experimental setup were validated successfully. At least 179 human metabolites could be detected by GC-IMS from the skin of 7 volunteers. Fifteen metabolites were available in all samples from all volunteers and therefore can be characterised as basic sweat compounds which might enable the localisation of hidden persons. Furthermore, in a preliminary feasibility study, the potential of GC-IMS for differentiating the composition of sweat after physical exercises and in a stressful situation-even gender specific-could be demonstrated. Thus, with GC-IMS, a rapid and mobile analytical tool for the analysis of skin volatiles is available for a broad range of applications, e.g. with regard to axillary odour, human health, nutrition, consumption of remedies or drugs of abuse, the localisation of trapped or hidden persons, or even the characterisation of the reaction on stressful situations. Graphical abstract.