We review the existing measures of uncertainty (entropy) for Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets (AIFSs). We demonstrate that the existing measures of uncertainty for AIFS cannot capture all facets of uncertainty associated with an AIFS. We point out and justify that there are at least two facets of uncertainty of an AIFS, one of which is related to fuzziness while the other is related to lack of knowledge or non-specificity. For each facet of uncertainty, we propose a separate set of axioms. Then for each of fuzziness and non-specificity we propose a generating family (class) of measures. Each family is illustrated with several examples. In this context we prove several interesting results about the measures of uncertainty. We prove some results that help us to construct new measures of uncertainty of both kinds.

This paper is an amendment to Hop's paper INN. Hop, Solving linear programming problems under fuzziness and randomness environment using attainment values, Information Sciences 177 (2007) 2971-2984], in solving linear programming problems under fuzziness and randomness environments. Hop introduced a new characterization of relationship, attainment values, to enable the conversion of fuzzy (stochastic) linear programming models into corresponding deterministic linear programming models. The purpose of this paper is to provide a correction and an improvement of Hop's analytical work through rationalization and simplification. More importantly, it is shown that Hop's analysis does not support his demonstration or the solution-finding mechanism; the attainment values approach as he had proposed does not result in superior performance as compared to other existing approaches because it neglects some relevant and inevitable theoretical essentials. Two numerical examples from Hop's paper are also employed to show that his approach, in the conversion of fuzzy (stochastic) linear programming problems to corresponding problems, is questionable and can neither find the maximum nor the minimum in the examples. The models of the examples are subsequently amended in order to derive the correct optimal solutions.

Fuzzy regression (FR) been demonstrated as a promising technique for modeling manufacturing processes where availability of data is limited. FR can only yield linear type FR models which have a higher degree of fuzziness, but FR ignores higher order or interaction terms and the influence of outliers, all of which usually exist in the manufacturing process data. Genetic programming (GP), on the other hand, can be used to generate models with higher order and interaction terms but it cannot address the fuzziness of the manufacturing process data. In this paper, genetic programming-based fuzzy regression (GP-FR), which combines the advantages of the two approaches to overcome the deficiencies of the commonly used existing modeling methods, is proposed in order to model manufacturing processes. GP-FR uses GP to generate model structures based on tree representation which can represent interaction and higher order terms of models, and it uses an FIR generator based on fuzzy regression to determine outliers in experimental data sets. it determines the contribution and fuzziness of each term in the model by using experimental data excluding the outliers. To evaluate the effectiveness of GP-FR in modeling manufacturing processes, it was used to model a non-linear system and an epoxy dispensing process. The results were compared with those based on two commonly used FR methods, Tanka's FR and Peters' FR. The prediction accuracy of the models developed based on GP-FR was shown to be better than that of models based on the other two FR methods. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Conventional Fuzzy regression using possibilistic concepts allows the identification of models from uncertain data sets. However, some limitations still exist. This paper deals with a revisited approach for possibilistic fuzzy regression methods. Indeed, a new modified fuzzy linear model form is introduced where the identified model output can envelop all the observed data and ensure a total inclusion property. Moreover, this model output can have any kind of spread tendency. In this framework, the identification problem is reformulated according to a new criterion that assesses the model fuzziness independently from the collected data distribution. The potential of the proposed method with regard to the conventional approach is illustrated by simulation examples.

Fuzzy context-free max-star grammar (or FCFG(star), for short), as a straightforward extension of context-free grammar, has been introduced to express uncertainty, imprecision. and vagueness in natural language fragments. Li recently proposed the approximation of fuzzy finite automata, which may effectively deal with the practical problems of fuzziness, impreciseness and vagueness. In this paper, we further develop the approximation of fuzzy context-free grammars. In particular, we show that a fuzzy context-free grammar under max-star compositional inference can be approximated by some fuzzy context-free grammar under max-min compositional inference with any given accuracy. In addition, some related properties of fuzzy context-free grammars and fuzzy languages generated by them are studied. Finally, the sensitivity of fuzzy context-free grammars is also discussed.

In practice, many practical problems occur in uncertain environments, especially in situations that involve human subjective evaluation such as that in the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). This paper presents a practical multi-criteria group decision-making method for decision making under uncertainty. To handle the randomness and fuzziness of individual judgments, the normal Cloud model, group decision-making technique, and the Delphi feedback method are adopted. In the proposed Cloud Delphi hierarchical analysis (CDHA), experts are asked to express their judgments using interval numbers. Individual fuzziness and randomness are then mined from the interval-value comparison matrices. Subsequently, the interval-value pairwise comparison matrices are converted into the corresponding Cloud matrices, and the one-iteration Delphi process is executed to diminish individual judgment mistakes. The individual Cloud weight vectors are calculated using the geometric mean technique and are finally weighted to form the group Cloud weight vector. A simple case study that involved reproducing the relative area sizes of six provinces in China shows that the CDHA method can effectively reduce mistakes and improve decision makers' judgments in situations that require subjective expertise and judgmental inputs. In addition, a practical decision-making problem in which houses are ranked by home buyers shows that the proposed method is effective when applied to complex, large, multidisciplinary problems with considerable uncertainties.

The purpose of this paper is to develop a linear programming methodology for solving multiattribute group decision making problems using intuitionistic fuzzy (IF) sets. In this methodology, IF sets are constructed to capture fuzziness in decision information and decision making process. The group consistency and inconsistency indices are defined on the basis of pairwise comparison preference relations on alternatives given by the decision makers. An IF positive ideal solution (IFPIS) and weights which are unknown a priori are estimated using a new auxiliary linear programming model, which minimizes the group inconsistency index under some constraints. The distances of alternatives from the IFPIS are calculated to determine their ranking order. Moreover, some properties of the auxiliary linear programming model and other generalizations or specializations are discussed in detail. Validity and applicability of the proposed methodology are illustrated with the extended air-fighter selection problem and the doctoral student selection problem.

Several statistical decision making tools and methods are available to organize evidence, evaluate risks. and aid in decision making Process capability indices are the summary statistics to point out the process performance. In this paper, these indices are analyzed to obtain a new decision making tool. Process accuracy index (C-a) measures the degree of process centering and gives alerts when the process mean departures from the target value. It focuses oil the location of process mean and the distance between mean and target value. We modify the traditional process accuracy index to obtain a new tool under fuzziness. With the proposed tool. specification limits and process mean can be defined as triangular or trapezoidal fuzzy numbers The proposed tool is illustrated to solve a supplier selection problem .

This paper extends earlier work C. Borgelt, R. Kruse. Speeding up fuzzy clustering with neural network techniques, in: Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE'03, St. Louis, MO, USA), IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2003] on an approach to accelerate fuzzy clustering by transferring methods that were originally developed to speed up the training process of (artificial) neural networks. The core idea is to consider the difference between two consecutive steps of the alternating optimization scheme of fuzzy clustering as providing a gradient. This "gradient" may then be modified in the same way as a gradient is modified in error backpropagation in order to enhance the training. Even though these modifications are, in principle, directly applicable, carefully checking and bounding the update steps can improve the performance and can make the procedure more robust. In addition, this paper provides a new and much more detailed experimental evaluation that is based on fuzzy cluster comparison measures C. Borgelt, Resampling for fuzzy clustering, Int. J. Uncertainty, Fuzziness Knowledge-based Syst. 15 (5) (2007), 595-614], which can be used nicely to study the convergence speed.

The occurrence of imprecision in the real world is inevitable due to some unexpected situations. The imprecision is often involved in any engineering design process. The imprecision and uncertainty are often interpreted as fuzziness. Fuzzy systems have an essential role in the uncertainty modelling, which can formulate the uncertainty in the actual environment. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to solve a system of fuzzy polynomial equations based on the Gr?bner basis. In this approach, first, the h-cut of a system of fuzzy polynomial equations is computed, and a parametric form for the fuzzy system with respect to the parameter of h is obtained. Then, a Gr?bner basis is computed for the ideal generated by the h-cuts of the system with respect to the lexicographical order using Faugère's algorithm, i.e., F _4 algorithm. The Gr?bner basis of the system has an upper triangular structure. Therefore, the system can be solved using the forward substitution. Hence, all the solutions of the system of fuzzy polynomial equations can easily be obtained. Finally, the proposed approach is compared with the current numerical methods. Some theorems together with some numerical examples and applications are presented to show the efficiency of our method with respect to the other methods.