Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a degenerative disease that can lead to substantial morphometric remodeling of the pulmonary arteries. Previous studies have revealed coupling relationships between right ventricular (RV) function and pulmonary arterial hemodynamics. The objective of this study was to utilize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to estimate spatially averaged Wall Shear Stress (WSS) for patients with PH and explore correlations between hemodynamics metrics and RV function.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is the most severe form of pulmonary hypertension due to its rapid progression to right ventricular (RV) failure. Until the recent combination of chronic hypoxia with VEGF receptor blockage by SU5416 1], there was no mouse model for severe PAH. This new model (HySu) recapitulates hallmarks of human PAH, especially distal arteriolar neointima formation and obliteration 1]. However, the changes in RV function in this model have not been examined. Here we investigate the hypothesis that the HySu mouse model mimics the progression of RV dysfunction found in PAH clinically from compensatory to maladaptive RV remodeling.
Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is a female dominant, fatal disease characterized by progressive increase of pulmonary vascular resistance and loss of compliance. The role of estrogen in these pulmonary vascular changes with PAH progression remains unclear. Our objective was to study the effects of estrogen on pulmonary arterial (PA) remodeling in a mouse model of progressive PAH, created via a combination of a VEGF inhibitor Sugen and chronic hypoxia (SuHx). To quantify PA hemodynamics, we measured in vivo pressure and flow simultaneously in live mice in order to obtain pulmonary vascular impedance, a comprehensive measure of RV afterload. Our results demonstrate that estrogen modifies the relationship between PA resistance and compliance by attenuating PA stiffening, which provides insight into sex differences in PAH progression.
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by obstruction of the pulmonary vasculature by residual organized thrombi. A morphological abnormality inside mediastinum of CTEPH patient is enlargement of pulmonary artery. This paper presents an automated assessment of aortic and main pulmonary arterial diameters for predicting CTEPH in low-dose CT lung screening. The distinctive feature of our method is to segment aorta and main pulmonary artery using both of prior probability and vascular direction which were estimated from mediastinal vascular region using principal curvatures of four-dimensional hyper surface. The method was applied to two datasets, 64 lowdose CT scans of lung cancer screening and 19 normal-dose CT scans of CTEPH patients through the training phase with 121 low-dose CT scans. This paper demonstrates effectiveness of our method for predicting CTEPH in low-dose CT screening.
Pulmonary vascular responses elicited by hypoxia and NO-cGMP signaling are potentially influenced by ROS and redox mechanisms that change during the progression of disease processes. Our studies in endothelium-rubbed bovine pulmonary arteries suggest increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels (compared to coronary arteries) seem to maintain a tonic peroxide-mediated relaxation removed by hypoxia through NADPH fueling superoxide generation from Nox oxidase. The activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, oxidases (i.e., Nox4), and systems metabolizing superoxide and peroxide markedly influence hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and cGMP protein kinase seems to participate in peroxide-elicited relaxation. Endogenous NO helps maintain low pulmonary arterial pressure and suppresses HPV. Multiple redox processes potentially occurring during the progression of pulmonary hypertension may also attenuate NO-mediated relaxation beyond its scavenging by superoxide, including oxidation of guanylate cyclase heme and thiols normally maintained by cytosolic NADPH redox control.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an incurable condition inevitably resulting in death because of increased right heart workload and eventual failure. PH causes pulmonary vascular remodeling, including muscularization of the arteries, and a reduction in the typically large vascular compliance of the pulmonary circulation. We used a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT) induced PH to evaluated and compared Captopril (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor with antioxidant capacity) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a mucolytic with a large antioxidant capacity) as possible treatments. Twenty-eight days after MCT injection, the rats were sacrificed and heart, blood, and lungs were studied to measure indices such as right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), hematocrit, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), vessel morphology and biomechanics. We implemented microfocal X-ray computed tomography to image the pulmonary arterial tree at intravascular pressures of 30, 21, 12, and 6 mmHg and then used automated vessel detection and measurement algorithms to perform morphological analysis and estimate the distensibility of the arterial tree. The vessel detection and measurement algorithms quickly and effectively mapped and measured the vascular trees at each intravascular pressure. Monocrotaline treatment, and the ensuing PH, resulted in a significantly decreased arterial distensibility, increased PVR, and tended to decrease the length of the main pulmonary trunk. In rats with PH induced by monocrotaline, Captopril treatment significantly increased arterial distensibility and decrease PVR. NAC treatment did not result in an improvement, it did not significantly increase distensibility and resulted in further increase in PVR. Interestingly, NAC tended to increase peripheral vascular density. The results suggest that arterial distensibility may be more important than distal collateral pathways in maintaining PVR at normally low values.
Acute thromboembolic pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life threatening condition that can lead to pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction or failure. There is typically an increase in ventilation rate and cardiac output as a response to PE prior to cardiac failure, which is at least in part due to systemic hypoxemia. Here we assess the response of the lungs to changes in these parameters using anatomically-based computational models of pulmonary perfusion, ventilation and gas exchange. We show that increases in ventilation and cardiac output improve overall gas exchange in PE. However, this comes at the cost of an increased pulmonary blood pressure, which may contribute to pulmonary hypertension as a result of PE.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common in thalassemia and contributes to mortality. Advancing age and a history of splenectomy are major risk factors in this population. The etiology of PH is multifactorial, involving a complex interaction of platelets, the coagulation system, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells along with inflammatory and vascular mediators. The long-term effect of splenectomy, red cell membrane pathology, coagulation abnormalities, low nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, excess arginase activity, platelet activation, oxidative stress, iron overload, and chronic hemolysis play a role. The process of hemolysis disables the arginine-NO pathway through the simultaneous release of erythrocyte arginase and cell-free hemoglobin. Both NO and its obligate substrate arginine are rapidly consumed. The biological consequences of hemolysis on NO bioavailability ultimately translate into the clinical manifestations of PH. Guidelines for the management of PH in thalassemia have not yet been established; however, clinical trials are ongoing in an effort to guide future therapy.
Utilizing small animal magnetocardiograms (MCG), we have developed a diagnostic method to detect the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in a rat heart. We obtained multiple MCG of rats with monocrotaline-induced PH and monitored the development of pathophysiological conditions. Current dipole estimation was then applied to determine the association between abnormal propagation of the cardiac excited wavefront and disease states. The progress of right ventricular hypertrophy correlated with a decrease in the angles of the current dipoles during R and S waves. In addition, clear changes in the current dipole angles during S waves were observed 9-19 days before the availability of echocardiographic diagnosis of the PH. Our results showed, using a rat PH model, that continuous monitoring of myocardial conditions allows PH to be detected at an earlier stage than echocardiographic screening.
Microfocal CT was used to image the pulmonary arterial (PA) tree in rodent models of pulmonary hypertension (PH). CT images were used to measure the arterial tree diameter along the main arterial trunk at several hydrostatic intravascular pressures and calculate distensibility. High-resolution planar angiographic imaging was also used to examine distal PA microstructure. Data on pulmonary artery tree morphology improves our understanding of vascular remodeling and response to treatments. Angiotensin II (ATII) has been identified as a mediator of vasoconstriction and proliferative mitotic function. ATII has been shown to promote vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well as stimulate synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. Available ATII is targeted through angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), a method that has been used in animal models of PH to attenuate vascular remodeling and decrease pulmonary vascular resistance. In this study, we used rat models of chronic hypoxia to induce PH combined with partial left pulmonary artery occlusion (arterial banding, PLPAO) to evaluate effects of the ACEI, captopril, on pulmonary vascular hemodynamic and morphology. Male Sprague Dawley rats were placed in hypoxia (FiO2 0.1), with one group having underwent PLPAO three days prior to the chronic hypoxia. After the twenty-first day of hypoxia exposure, treatment was started with captopril (20 mg/kg/day) for an additional twenty-one days. At the endpoint, lungs were excised and isolated to examine: pulmonary vascular resistance, ACE activity, pulmonary vessel morphology and biomechanics. Hematocrit and RV/LV+septum ratio was also measured. CT planar images showed less vessel dropout in rats treated with captopril versus the non-treatment lungs. Distensibility data shows no change in rats treated with captopril in both chronic hypoxia (CH) and CH with PLPAO (CH+PLPAO) models. Hemodynamic measurements also show no change in the pulmonary vascular resistance with captopril treatment in both CH and CH+PLPAO.