Cancer and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are characterized by (i) opposing biological mechanisms, (ii) an inverse correlation between their incidences, and (iii) oxidative stress being a common denominator of both diseases. Increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells from oncogenic signaling and/or metabolic disturbances leads to upregulation of cellular antioxidant capacity to maintain ROS levels below a toxic threshold. Combining drugs that induce high levels of ROS with compounds that suppress cellular antioxidant capacity by depleting antioxidant systems [glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and thioredoxin (TRX)] and/or targeting glucose metabolism represents a potential anticancer strategy. In AD, free metals and/or Aβ:metal complexes may cause damage to biomolecules in the brain (via Fenton reaction), including DNA. Metal chelation, based on the application of selective metal chelators or metal delivery, may induce neuroprotective signaling and represents a promising therapeutic strategy. This review examines therapeutic strategies based on the modulation of oxidative stress in cancer and AD.
Nanoscale drug delivery systems using liposomes and nanoparticles are emerging technologies for the rational delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of cancer. Their use offers improved pharmacokinetic properties, controlled and sustained release of drugs and, more importantly, lower systemic toxicity. The commercial availability of liposomal Doxil® and albumin-nanoparticle-based Abraxane® has focused attention on this innovative and exciting field. Recent advances in liposome technology offer better treatment of multidrug-resistant cancers and lower cardiotoxicity. Nanoparticles offer increased precision in chemotherapeutic targeting of prostate cancer and new avenues for the treatment of breast cancer. Here we review current knowledge on the two technologies and their potential applications to cancer treatment.
Over the past 20 years, protein engineering has been extensively used to improve and modify the fundamental properties of fluorescent proteins (FPs) with the goal of adapting them for a fantastic range of applications. FPs have been modified by a combination of rational design, structure-based mutagenesis, and countless cycles of directed evolution (gene diversification followed by selection of clones with desired properties) that have collectively pushed the properties to photophysical and biochemical extremes. In this review, we provide both a summary of the progress that has been made during the past two decades, and a broad overview of the current state of FP development and applications in mammalian systems. Monomeric red and far-red FPs and indicators now perform nearly as well as the best green FPs (and indicators). Reversible and irreversible photochromism in FPs can be exploited to increase optical resolution and improve contrast compared with traditional fluorescence microscopy. Infrared FPs (IFPs) are becoming ever more useful as labels for various proteins that allow correct localization and whole-animal imaging. IFPs can serve as an additional fluorescent ‘color’ for simultaneous imaging with visible FP-labeled proteins. Bacterial phytochrome (BphP)-based IFPs provide a new scaffold for engineering fluorogenic indicators, which are ideal to visualize spatiotemporal dynamics of cell signaling . Small ultra-red FP (smURFP) is the brightest far-red nonprototypical FP (comparable with EGFP) and is extremely photostable. smURFP may prove particularly useful as a photostable FP for super-resolution imaging and as a FRET acceptor for biosensing applications. The engineering of new fluorescent indicators that combine features of prototypical FP-based indicators with photochromic proteins can reveal the cellular maps of biochemical activities in super-resolution. FPs can be used as optogenetic actuators to manipulate cellular and protein functions through chromophore-assisted light inactivation or light-controlled protein oligomerization.
The field of rheology of foods is extensive and a researcher in the field is called upon to interact with a diverse group of scientists and engineers. In arranging this symposium for the AIChE meeting in Chicago in November 1990 the papers were carefully selected to highlight this diversity. All but two of the chapters in this book are based on papers which were presented at this symposium, the additional paper was presented at the Conference on Food Engineering, Chicago, March 1991, and the book opens with an introductory overview. All the papers are peer–reviewed research contributions. The chapters cover a range of applications of food rheology to such areas as food texture, stability, and processing. This volume will be a reference source for workers within this wide and varied field..