To investigate geographic origins of the sacrificial Burials 2–5 from the Moon Pyramid at Teotihuacan and to reconstruct changes in residence since their childhoods, we analyzed tooth enamel for oxygen- and strontium-isotope ratios and bone just for oxygen-isotope ratios. The combination of these analytical techniques involves both climatic and geological variables, therefore enhancing resolution of geographic identification. Most of the sacrificed individuals appear to have been born in a foreign location. These regions probably include other areas within the Basin of Mexico and the central highlands, as well as the Gulf Coast and the Sierra Madre del Sur. Other possible regions of origin are the southern highlands, the Motagua Valley, and the Maya Lowlands. There is considerable overlap in the oxygen-isotope ratios between the Moon Pyramid and Feathered Serpent Pyramid victims, but each structure contains a group of isotopically distinct individuals. The Moon Pyramid sacrifices include some individuals with high oxygen-isotope ratios, possibly indicating the Gulf Coast or Maya Lowlands, whereas the Feathered Serpent Pyramid contains a distinct group with very low oxygen-isotope ratios, possibly indicating Oaxaca, Michoacan, or the coastal plain and piedmont of Guatemala. The sacrifices in the two pyramids also differ in their patterns of movement. Most of the Moon Pyramid victims appear to have arrived in the city recently, but the majority of those from the Feathered Serpent Pyramid had lived in Teotihuacan for a long time before their death. Las proporciones de isótopos de oxígeno y estroncio fueron medidas en el esmalte de dientes de todos los sacrificios humanos de la Pirámide de la Luna, Teotihuacan, para investigar sus orígenes geográficos. Las proporciones de isótopos de oxígeno fueron medidas en huesos de todos los mismos individuos para determinar si ellos se habían reubicado o no desde su niñez en Teotihuacan o alguna otra región. La combinación de estas técnicas analíticas provee una resolución mucho mayor para identificar orígenes posibles porque involucra un grupo más grande de variables ambientales, por ejemplo, las proporciones de isótopos de oxígeno caracterizan temperatura, altitud, precipitación y humedad, y las proporciones de isótopos de estroncio reflejan la geología. Todos los individuos sacrificados, con una posible excepción, parecen haber nacido en un lugar extranjero. Estas regiones probablemente incluyen otras áreas dentro de la cuenca de México y la Sierra Central, así como la Costa del Golfo y la Sierra Madre del Sur. Otras posibles regiones de origen son la Sierra Meridional, el Valle de Motagua y las Tierras Bajas Mayas. Hay una considerable superposición de las proporciones de isótopos de oxígeno entre las víctimas de la Pirámide de la Luna y las de la Pirámide de la Serpiente Emplumada, pero cada estructura contiene un grupo de individuos isotópicamente distintos. La Pirámide la Luna tiene un número de individuos con proporciones de isótopos de oxígeno mucho más altas, posiblemente indicativas de individuos de la Costa del Golfo o de las Tierras Bajas Mayas, mientras que la Pirámide la Serpiente Emplumada tiene un grupo distinto de individuos con proporciones de isótopos de oxígenos muy bajas, posiblemente indicativas de Oaxaca, Michoacan o la Llanura Costanera y el Pie de Monte de Guatemala. Los sacrificios en las dos pirámides también difieren en sus patrones de movimiento. La mayoría de los de la Pirámide de la Serpiente Emplumada habían vivido en Teotihuacan por largo tiempo antes de su muerte, mientras que la mayoría de las víctimas de la Pirámide la Luna parecen haber llegado a la ciudad recientemente desde el extranjero.
This paper presents a thermal model for the prehistoric origin and development of clothing. A distinction is drawn between simple and complex forms of clothing, with broad implications for the interpretation of paleolithic technological transitions and the emergence of modern human behavior. Physiological principles and paleoenvironmental data are harnessed to identify conditions requiring simple, loosely draped garments and the more challenging conditions that demanded additional protection in the form of complex garment assemblages. No actual clothing survives from the Pleistocene, yet the archaeological record yields evidence for technological and other correlates of clothing—more evidence than is generally supposed. Major innovations and trends in the distributions and relative frequencies of lithic and other tool forms may reflect the changing need for portable insulation in the context of fluctuating ice age climates. Moreover, the nonthermal repercussions of complex clothing can be connected with archaeological signatures of modern human behavior, notably adornment. Alternative models are less parsimonious in accounting for the geographical and temporal variability of prominent technological and other behavioral patterns in association with environmental change.
Purpose When wearable and implantable devices first arose in the 1970s, they were rigid and clashed dramatically with our soft, pliable skin and organs. The past two decades have witnessed a major upheaval in these devices. Traditional electronics are six orders of magnitude stiffer than soft tissue. As a result, when rigid electronics are integrated with the human body, severe challenges in both mechanical and geometrical form mismatch occur. This mismatch creates an uneven contact at the interface of soft-tissue, leading to noisy and unreliable data gathering of the body’s vital signs. This paper aims to predict the role that discreet, seamless medical devices will play in personalized health care by discussing novel solutions for alleviating this interface mismatch and exploring the challenges in developing and commercializing such devices. Design methodology/approach Since the form factors of biology cannot be changed to match those of rigid devices, conformable devices that mimic the shape and mechanical properties of soft body tissue must be designed and fabricated. These conformable devices play the role of imperceptible medical interfaces. Such interfaces can help scientists and medical practitioners to gain further insights into the body by providing an accurate and reliable instrument that can conform closely to the target areas of interest for continuous, long-term monitoring of the human body, while improving user experience. Findings The authors have highlighted current attempts of mechanically adaptive devices for health care, and the authors forecast key aspects for the future of these conformable biomedical devices and the ways in which these devices will revolutionize how health care is administered or obtained. Originality/value The authors conclude this paper with the perspective on the challenges of implementing this technology for practical use, including device packaging, environmental life cycle, data privacy, industry partnership and collaboration.
The Pianist Glenn Gould has often been portrayed as a musical idealist who embraced mundane recording media as a way of escaping the anxiety of the concert hall. In pursuing his musical ideals, however, Gould obsessed over material objects the qualities of a chair, the action of piano keys, the placement of splices in magnetic tape. This paper argues that for him, the detailed properties of machines and electronic media were crucial, not just as tools for pursuing disembodied aesthetic aims, but as instruments and material sites for a moral project. Locating Gould's concerns among the techniques and technologies that inspired him, the concert hall he despised, and the jazz and chance music he tolerated, the paper explores how Gould's famed philosophy of technology was rooted in a "technological self" that tied morality and aesthetics, and intimacy and isolation, to concrete ideals for the kinds of people we ought to be.
The university's annual Contemporary Music Festival this month will showcase a collage of musical responses to the theme "Sensing Memory" - the creative, artistic face of scientific process. A selection of volunteers will wear biosensors monitoring their heart rate, muscle tension or perspiration, and their physiological responses to the action will generate one of four different narrative pathways and conclusions - interactive film but one whose interactions take place at a subconscious level.
The use of organ extracts to treat psychiatric disorder in the interwar period is an episode in the history of psychiatry which has largely been forgotten. An analysis of case‐notes from The Maudsley Hospital from the period 1923–1938 shows that the prescription of extracts taken from animal testes, ovaries, thyroids, and other organs was widespread within this London Hospital. This article explores the way in which Maudsley doctors justified these treatments by tying together psychological theories of the unconscious with experimental data drawn from laboratory studies of human organs. It explores the logic behind these treatments and examines beliefs about their efficacy. The connection between this historical episode and current research in endocrinology and psychology is explored.
The notion of the ‘division of physiological labour’ is today an outdated relic in the history of science. This contrasts with the fate of another notion, which was so frequently paired with the division of physiological labour, which is the concept of ‘morphological differentiation.’ This is one of the elementary modal concepts of ontogenesis. In this paper, we intend to target the problems and causes that gradually led biologists to combine these two notions during the 19th century, and to progressively dissociate them, retaining only the concept of differentiation by the early 20th century. We shall adhere to the following: 1. The primitive economic concept of the division of labour is not a descriptive notion denoting a type of organisation of labour, but an etiological one: the idea of a causal relationship between this type of organization and the improvement of the whole. 2. This concept rapidly interested naturalists such as Henri Milne-Edwards, who were keen to find a rational ground for hierarchizing living forms based on anatomical complexity. 3. The validation of this notion in the realms of biology was subject to at least two conditions which were far from being fully satisfied. This did not prevent, however, the initial success of the concept of the division of physiological labour during the second half of the 19th century. 4. Finally, the gradual disqualification, within the Darwinian theoretical context, of the conception of an intrinsic hierarchical rank of organisms, led to a lack of interest in the concept of the physiological division of labour, at least in its non-Darwinian and non-ecological variant (the link between the division of labour within an organism and organic perfection).
The simultaneous ascension of both the bulldozer and "bulldozer books" was no accident, but reflected parallels between the landscapes of fact and feeling. The books reflect the social, political, and cultural preoccupations of their era, helping a younger generation to make sense of the world around them as their environment underwent massive physical upheaval. David Nye has called these kinds of tales "technological foundation stories." Here, Ammon examines the culture clearance in postwar children's book, Benny the Bulldozer.