Groundwater plays a major role in agro-hydrological processes in the North China Plain (NCP). The NCP is facing a water deficit, due to a rapid decline in the water table because of the double cropping system. A two crop (maize and wheat) rotation is required to balance the food supply and demand, which leads to an imbalance between evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation. Thus, there has been a decline of about 1.35 m yr−1 of groundwater (Luancheng Agroecosystem Experimental Station (LAES), NCP) during the last 10 years. Lysimeter experiments were conducted under different irrigation treatments (flood, surface drip, and subsurface drip) to account for ET in the selection of a suitable irrigation method. Subsurface drip irrigation reduced ET by 26% compared to flood irrigation, and 15% compared to surface drip irrigation, with significant grain yield and biomass formation due to decreased evaporation losses. Grain yield, yield components, and above ground biomass were similar in subsurface drip and flood irrigation. However, these biomass parameters were lower with surface drip irrigation. Furthermore, subsurface drip irrigation increased the crop water productivity (24.95%) and irrigation water productivity (19.59%) compared to flood irrigation. The subsurface irrigated plants showed an increase in net photosynthesis (~10%), higher intrinsic water use efficiency (~36%), lower transpiration rate (~22%), and saved 80 mm of water compared to flood irrigation. Our findings indicate that subsurface drip irrigation can be adopted in the NCP to increase water use efficiency, optimize grain yield, and minimize water loss in order to address scarcity.
teleomorph ] and together with are the main species known to produce nivalenol (NIV). The NIV content in wheat ( L.) harvested in Luxembourg was investigated in 2007 and 2008 at 17 different locations. Species determination and genetic chemotyping of and were used to understand the spatial distribution of NIV producers in wheat from Luxembourg. Three hundred thirteen , 175 and 117 strains respectively were isolated. Chemotypes of the first two species were determined by PCR and confirmed on a sub-sample of single isolates by LC-MS/MS analysis. The 15-acetylated DON chemotype of was dominant in both years representing 94.2% of the population while the NIV chemotype represented 5.8%. The chemotypes were rather evenly distributed, with 3-acetylated DON and NIV profiles present with similar abundances (53.2% and 46.8%, respectively). NIV presence in wheat flour obtained from the 17 sites was correlated with the number of NIV chemotype) isolated from 100 seeds suggesting its primary role in NIV production on grains The predictive power for identifying NIV contamination in grains based on NIV chemotype presence was confirmed by coupling the isolation procedure with a cut-off value, resulting in the successful identification (100%, = 0.008) of NIV contamination in grains collected from 9 additional experimental sites. In conclusion, the results highlight the importance of chemotyping for improved prediction of toxin contamination in wheat.
Since organic food is widely assumed to have a better nutritional quality than conventional food, our aim was to study the effects of organic vs conventional cropping systems on yield and the phenolic composition of winter wheat cv. ‘Bologna’. Although organic wheat yielded less than conventional wheat, mainly due to the nitrogen shortage, and its bread-making quality was lower, the cultivation system did not affect the total amounts of phenolics and phenolic acids. Of the eight phenolic acids identified, only ferulic acid was influenced by the cultivation system. Phenolic composition and quantity were significantly affected by the milling fraction (bran or white flour): phenolics were more concentrated in the bran, which showed the highest antioxidant power. Under the conditions adopted in this study, an organic cropping system can maintain or even increase the health properties of the wheat milled products, provided a reduction in grain yield is accepted.
Nitrogen (N) fertilization leads to the release of reactive N species, which can be detrimental to the environment. Nitrification inhibitors (NIs) are substances capable of retarding the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, which can increase N use efficiency of applied N fertilizer and decrease N losses such as the release of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Adaption of N fertilizer amount to plant demand might also decrease N surpluses and thus lower N2O emissions. We investigated the effects of N fertilizer amount (0, 120, 180, and 240 kg N ha−1 a−1) and the use of the NI 3,4-dimethylpyrazol phosphate, DMPP, on annual N2O emission from a soil cropped with winter wheat in a 2 year field experiment. N2O fluxes were affected by N level and by use of DMPP with higher fluxes under high N amounts and treatments without NI. Application of DMPP led to a reduction of annual emissions by 45%. Interestingly, also winter emissions (8–12 months after N fertilization) were decreased by DMPP. In this period, a complete degradation of DMPP was assumed. The reason for this effect remains unclear. Wheat yield and quality were unaffected by DMPP, whereas grain yield was increased with N fertilizer amount in the first year. Nevertheless, response curves of grain yield-related N2O emissions over all data showed lower optimal N fertilizer doses when DMPP was used. Application of DMPP at suboptimal N rates could help to achieve a better profitability with simultaneous reduction of the product scaled emission.
BACKGROUND: Environmental protection problems and efforts to increase agricultural productivity result in attempts to use various organic and mineral wastes as fertilizers. This study aimed to determine the effect of biogas residue (BR) and mining waste (MS) fertilization on wheat yield as well as the nutritional and pro-health quality of grains produced. RESULTS: After the application of MS and BR wheat grain yield was increased compared to unfertilized wheat. The highest grain yield and thousand-grain weight were obtained after MS+BR fertilization. Grains of wheat fertilized with BR and MS+BR contained significantly more protein and wet gluten compared to no fertilization and conventional fertilization (NPK). The studied conditions did not statistically affect starch content. BR fertilization significantly increased the total phenolic content; however, grains of wheat fertilized with NPK were characterized by the highest content of flavonoids and syringic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids. Compared to NPK, waste fertilizations positively affect the reducing power and antiradical activity of wheat. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the wastes evaluated can be an alternative to conventional fertilization in the soil tested that without any significant deterioration and in some cases significant improvement of yield and wheat quality. (C) 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
The North China Plain (NCP) is the most important winter wheat production region and an area of water shortage in China. The stability of winter wheat (T. aestivum L.) production in spatial pattern and the sustainability of water resources have been a major policy concern in China. This study explored the barycenter shift and change trends of wheat total production during 1998-2015, using methods of barycenter model, Sen's slope, and Mann Kendall test, and analyzed the influence of external factors and the response of water resources. Results indicated that the barycenter of wheat production moved southwards by 115.16 km during 1998-2015, with an average speed of 6.77 km/year. For the entire NCP, the total production showed phased changes during the study period: It decreased during 1998-2003, and then continuously increased during 2004-2015. Of the wheat production increase in the NCP, yield increase and sown area expansion averagely contributed 64.5% and 35.5%, respectively, and the contribution proportion of yield increase continuously increased since 2003. At county level, total wheat production showed a significant increase and decrease trend in 87 and 29 counties, mainly distributed in the southern and northern NCP, respectively. The increase of total production at county level was mainly contributed by yield growth in the southern NCP, while the decrease in the north was due to the reduction of sown area to great extent. The southward shift was jointly resulted by the spatial variation of input factors, benefit, and water prices. These spatial pattern changes alleviated the water pressure in the north region to some extent, in the case of ensuring the production increase of winter wheat. Therefore, the current spatial shift should be continuously promoted in the future.
The effects of green tea powder ( GTP ) on the properties of hard red winter ( HRW ) flour and Chinese steamed bread were investigated. GTP was blended with HRW flour at levels of 0.00, 1.00, 2.00, 3.00 and 4.00 g GTP /100 g wheat flour. With the addition of GTP , the maximum torque of flour became stronger. The resilience and degree of green colour of steamed bread increased, while hardness and chewiness decreased, with the addition of GTP . The addition of 1.00% GTP did not significantly affect the specific volume, but remarkably influenced the hardness and resilience of steamed bread. In steamed bread formulated with GTP , the antioxidant activity was 0.84 m m TE per g at 1.00% of GTP and increased with GTP levels. The steamed bread had a pleasant flavour, and the degree of overall liking of steamed bread increased with GTP levels to the maximum used in this work. Green tea powder increased the antioxidant activity of steamed bread, and did not affect the quality of steamed bread with a pleasant tea flavour.
BACKGROUND: Northward expansion of winter wheat is an efficient means to improve crop yield and quality in many countries. However, inadequate cold hardiness restricts the northward expansion of winter wheat. This study aimed to investigate cold adaption of different wheat varieties and underlying physiological mechanism. RESULTS: In the field experiment, soluble sugar and proline content, relative electric conductivity (EC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were higher in wheat varieties in the overwintering period than those in the pre-wintering period. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was lower in the overwintering period than in the pre-wintering period and spring growth period. Photosynthetic rate was reduced dramatically in the winter variety (Suyin 10), weak winter variety (Lumai 22) and spring (Jinchun 9) variety after low-temperature treatment. Cold treatment inhibited stomatal conductance (G(s)) and transpiration rate (T-r). Influences of high-temperature treatment and cold acclimation after vernalization were further analyzed in the greenhouse in wheat variety Jinghe 1. High-temperature treatment after vernalization significantly inhibited SOD and peroxidase activities in the vernalized plants, while cold acclimation after vernalization enhanced peroxidase activity. CONCLUSION: Cold tolerance of wheat varieties may be associated with effective osmoregulation ability, photosynthetic capacity, G(s) and T-r, as well as activity of antioxidant enzymes. (C) 2015 Society of Chemical Industry