Neuroelectric oscillations reflect rhythmic shifting of neuronal ensembles between high and low excitability states. In natural settings, important stimuli often occur in rhythmic streams, and when oscillations entrain to an input rhythm their high excitability phases coincide with events in the stream, effectively amplifying neuronal input responses. When operating in a ‘rhythmic mode’, attention can use these differential excitability states as a mechanism of selection by simply enforcing oscillatory entrainment to a task-relevant input stream. When there is no low-frequency rhythm that oscillations can entrain to, attention operates in a ‘continuous mode’, characterized by extended increase in gamma synchrony. We review the evidence for early sensory selection by oscillatory phase-amplitude modulations, its mechanisms and its perceptual and behavioral consequences.
First published in 2016, predictors of chronological and biological age developed using deep learning (DL) are rapidly gaining popularity in the aging research community. These deep aging clocks can be used in a broad range of applications in the pharmaceutical industry, spanning target identification, drug discovery, data economics, and synthetic patient data generation. We provide here a brief overview of recent advances in this important subset, or perhaps superset, of aging clocks that have been developed using artificial intelligence (AI).
To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2016.02.004 Byline: Pedro Mendes, Stephen G. Oliver, Douglas B. Kell Author Affiliation: (1) School of Computer Science, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK (2) Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, The University of Manchester, 131 Princess St, Manchester M1 7DN, UK (3) Centre for Synthetic Biology of Fine and Speciality Chemicals (SYNBIOCHEM), The University of Manchester, 131, Princess St, Manchester M1 7DN, United Kingdom (4) Center for Quantitative Medicine, University of of Connecticut, UConn Health, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030-6033, USA (5) Cambridge Systems Biology Centre, University of Cambridge, Manchester, UK (6) Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Sanger Building, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA, UK (7) School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom
Neural oscillations are ubiquitously observed in the mammalian brain, but it has proven difficult to tie oscillatory patterns to specific cognitive operations. Notably, the coupling between neural oscillations at different timescales has recently received much attention, both from experimentalists and theoreticians. We review the mechanisms underlying various forms of this cross-frequency coupling. We show that different types of neural oscillators and cross-frequency interactions yield distinct signatures in neural dynamics. Finally, we associate these mechanisms with several putative functions of cross-frequency coupling, including neural representations of multiple environmental items, communication over distant areas, internal clocking of neural processes, and modulation of neural processing based on temporal predictions.
SQL: 1999 is the best way to make the leap from SQL-92 to SQL:1999, but it is much more than just a simple bridge between the two. The latest from celebrated SQL experts Jim Melton and Alan Simon, SQL:1999 is a comprehensive, eminently practical account of SQL's latest incarnation and a potent distillation of the details required to put it to work. Written to accommodate both novice and experienced SQL users, SQL:1999 focuses on the language's capabilities, from the basic to the advanced, and the ways that real applications take advantage of them. Throughout, the authors illustrate features and techniques with clear and often entertaining references to their own custom database.
An examination of the life cycle of software which incorporates aspects of software engineering, structured techniques of software development, software project management and software development and mathematics.
Distributed Computer Systems: Theory and Practice is a collection of papers dealing with the design and implementation of operating systems, including distributed systems, such as the amoeba system, argus, Andrew, and grapevine. One paper discusses the concepts and notations for concurrent programming, particularly language notation used in computer programming, synchronization methods, and also compares three classes of languages. Another paper explains load balancing or load redistribution to improve system performance, namely, static balancing and adaptive load balancing. For program efficiency, the user can choose from various debugging approaches to locate or fix errors without significantly disturbing the program behavior. Examples of debuggers pertain to the ada language and the occam programming language. Another paper describes the architecture of a real-time distributed database system used for computer network management, monitoring integration, as well as administration and control of both local area or wide area communications networks. The book can prove helpful to programmers, computer engineers, computer technicians, and computer instructors dealing with many aspects of computers, such as programming, hardware interface, networking, engineering or design..
Artificial Intelligence in BASIC presents some of the central ideas and practical applications of artificial intelligence (AI) using the BASIC programs. This eight-chapter book aims to explain these ideas of AI that can be used to produce programs on microcomputers. After providing an overview of the concept of AI, this book goes on examining the features and difficulties of a heuristic solution in a wide range of human problems. The discussion then shifts to the application of a heuristic solution to a two-ply search program for a two-person game. The following chapters are devoted to the other components of AI, including the expert systems, memory structure, pattern recognition, and language. The concluding chapter deals with the alternative and auxiliary approaches to the study of AI and its practical applications. Computer scientists and programmers will find this work invaluable..
A recent paper in this journal argued that reported expression levels, kcat and Km for drug transporters could be used to estimate the likelihood that drug fluxes through Caco-2 cells could be accounted for solely by protein transporters. It was in fact concluded that if five such transporters contributed ‘randomly’ they could account for the flux of the most permeable drug tested (verapamil) 35% of the time. However, the values of permeability cited for verapamil were unusually high; this and other drugs have much lower permeabilities. Even for the claimed permeabilities, we found that a single ‘random’ transporter could account for the flux 42% of the time, and that two transporters can achieve 10 · 10−6 cm·s−1 90% of the time. Parameter optimisation methods show that even a single transporter can account for Caco-2 drug uptake of the most permeable drug. Overall, the proposal that ‘phospholipid bilayer diffusion (of drugs) is negligible’ is not disproved by the calculations of ‘likely’ transporter-based fluxes.
Diacylglyceride kinases, sphingosine kinases, NAD kinases and 6-phosphofructokinases are thought to be related despite large evolution of their sequences. Discovery of a common signature has led to the suggestion that they possess a similar phosphate-donor-binding site and a similar phosphorylation mechanism. The substrate- and allosteric-binding sites are much more divergent and their delineation remains to be determined experimentally.