A new powdery mildew resistance gene Pm54 was identified on chromosome 6BL in soft red winter wheat.Powdery mildew is causing increasing damage to wheat production in the southeastern USA. To combat the disease, a continuing need exists to discover new genes for powdery mildew resistance and to incorporate those genes into breeding programs. Pioneer® variety 26R61 (shortened as 26R61) and AGS 2000 have been used as checks in the Uniform Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat Nursery for a decade, and both have provided good resistance across regions during that time. In the present study, a genetic analysis of mildew resistance was conducted on a RIL population developed from a cross of 26R61 and AGS 2000. Phenotypic evaluation was conducted in the field at Plains, GA, and Raleigh, NC, in 2012 and 2013, a total of four environments. Three quantitative trait loci (QTL) with major effect were consistently detected on wheat chromosomes 2BL, 4A and 6BL. The 2BL QTL contributed by 26R61 was different from Pm6, a widely used gene in the southeastern USA. The other two QTL were identified from AGS 2000. The 6BL QTL was subsequently characterized as a simple Mendelian factor when the population was inoculated with a single Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) isolate in controlled environments. Since there is no known powdery mildew resistance gene (Pm) on this particular location of common wheat, the gene was designated Pm54. The closely linked marker Xbarc134 was highly polymorphic in a set of mildew differentials, indicating that the marker should be useful for pyramiding Pm54 with other Pm genes by marker-assisted selection.