In this review, we highlight the use of organic photoredox catalysts in a myriad of synthetic transformations with a range of applications. This Overview is arranged by catalyst class where the photophysics and electrochemical characteristics of each is,discussed to underscore the differences and advantages to each type of single electron redox agent. We highlight both net reductive and oxidative as well as redox neutral transformations that can be accomplished using purely organic photoredoxactive catalysts. An overview of the basic photophysics and electron transfer theory is presented in order to provide a comprehensive guide for employing this class Of catalysts in photoredox manifolds.
The recent advances in electrocatalysis for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are thoroughly reviewed. This comprehensive Review focuses on the low- and non-platinum electrocatalysts including advanced platinum alloys, core shell structures, palladium-based catalysts, metal oxides and chalcogenides, carbon-based non-noble metal catalysts, and metal-free catalysts. The recent development of ORR electrocatalysts with novel structures and compositions is highlighted. The understandings of the correlation between the activity and the shape, size, composition, and synthesis method are summarized. For the carbon based materials, their performance and stability in fuel cells and comparisons with those of platinum are documented. The research directions as well as perspectives on the further development of more active and less expensive electrocatalysts are provided.
Since the discovery of mechanically exfoliated graphene in 2004, research on ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials has grown exponentially in the fields of condensed matter physics, material science, chemistry, and nanotechnology. Highlighting their compelling physical, chemical, electronic, and optical properties, as well as their various potential applications, in this Review, we summarize the state-of-art progress on the ultrathin 2D nanomaterials with a particular emphasis on their recent advances. First, we introduce the unique advances on ultrathin 2D nanomaterials, followed by the description of their composition and crystal structures. The assortments of their synthetic methods are then summarized, including insights on their advantages and limitations, alongside some recommendations on suitable characterization techniques. We also discuss in detail the utilization of these ultrathin 2D nanomaterials for wide ranges of potential applications among the electronics/optoelectronics, electrocatalysis, batteries, supercapacitors, solar cells, photo catalysis, and sensing platforms. Finally, the challenges and outlooks in this promising field are featured on the basis of its current development.
The halogen bond occurs when there is evidence of a net attractive interaction between an electrophilic region associated with a halogen atom in a molecular entity and a nucleophilic region in another, or the same, molecular entity. In this fairly extensive review, after a brief history of the interaction, we will provide the reader with a snapshot of where the research on the halogen bond is now, and, perhaps, where it is going. The specific advantages brought up by a design based on the use of the halogen bond will be demonstrated in quite different fields spanning from material sciences to biomolecular recognition and drug design.
Schneider et al examine the mechanisms and materials of understanding titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis. They focus on topics such as time-resolved analysis of the photocatalytic process, the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanoparticulate structures, and titanium-based single-site photocatalysts.
Lee et al explore one-dimensional titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotubes. They focus on the growth techniques for TiO2 nanotubes, ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays, the properties of TiO2 nanotubes, and the modification and applications of TiO2 nanotubes.
The interaction between an electronically excited photocatalyst and an organic molecule can result in the genertion of a diverse array of reactive intermediates that can be manipulated in a variety of ways to result in synthetically useful bond constructions. This Review summarizes dual-catalyst strategies that have been applied to synthetic photochemistry. Mechanistically distinct modes of photocatalysis are discussed, including photoinduced electron transfer, hydrogen atom transfer, and energy transfer. We focus upon the cooperative interactions of photocatalysts with redox mediators, Lewis and Bronsted acids, organocatalysts, enzymes, and transition metal complexes.
This Review focuses on noncovalent functionalization of graphene and graphene oxide with various species involving biomolecules, polymers, drugs, metals and metal oxide-based nanoparticles, quantum dots, magnetic nanostructures, other carbon allotropes (fullerenes, nanodiamonds, and carbon nanotubes), and graphene analogues (MoS2, WS2). A brief description of pi-pi interactions, van der Waals forces, ionic interactions, and hydrogen bonding allowing noncovalent modification of graphene and graphene oxide is first given. The main part of this Review is devoted, to tailored functionalization for applications in drug delivery, energy materials, solar cells, water splitting, biosensing, bioimaging, environmental, catalytic, photocatalytic, and biomedical technologies. A significant part of this Review explores the possibilities of graphene/graphene oxide-based 3D superstructures and their use in lithium-ion batteries. This Review ends with a look at challenges and future prospects of noncovalently modified graphene and graphene oxide.
Yi Ma et al examine titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based nanomaterials for photocatalytic fuel generations. They address various topics such as the basic properties of TiO2 semiconductor photocatalysts, the hydrogen generation of TiO2-based photocatalysts, and the photoreduction of CO2 to solar fuels on TiO2-based photocatalysts.
Colloidal nanoparticles are being intensely pursued in current nanoscience research. Nanochemists are often frustrated by the well-known fact that no two nanoparticles are the same, which precludes the deep understanding of many fundamental properties of colloidal nanoparticles in which the total structures (core plus surface) must be known. Therefore, controlling nanoparticles with atomic precision and solving their total structures have long been major dreams for nanochemists. Recently, these goals are partially fulfilled in the case of gold nanoparticles, at least in the ultrasmall size regime (1-3 nm in diameter, often called nanoclusters). This review summarizes the major progress in the field, including the principles that permit atomically precise synthesis, new types of atomic structures, and unique physical and chemical properties of atomically precise nanoparticles, as well as exciting opportunities for nanochemists to understand very fundamental science of colloidal nanoparticles (such as the stability, metal-ligand interfacial bonding, ligand assembly on particle surfaces, aesthetic structural patterns, periodicities, and emergence of the metallic state) and to develop a range of potential applications such as in catalysis, biomedicine, sensing, imaging, optics, and energy conversion. Although most of the research activity currently focuses on thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters, important progress has also been achieved in other ligand-protected gold, silver, and bimetal (or alloy) nanoclusters. All of these types of unique nanoparticles will bring unprecedented opportunities, not only in understanding the fundamental questions of nanoparticles but also in opening up new horizons for scientific studies of nanoparticles.